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    Publication Date: 2014-12-31
    Description: Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate qualitative and quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differential diagnoses of hypo-echoic renal tumor histotypes. Methods Our study cohort comprised 103 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs), 24 papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCCs), 28 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (cRCCs), and 34 angiomyolipomas (AMLs), hypo-echoic on ultrasound, and imaged between January 2011 and December 2013. Enhancement homogeneity and tumor-to-cortex intensity ratio (TOC ratio) were retrospectively analyzed. Results Overall, heterogeneous enhancement was more common in ccRCCs than AMLs, pRCCs, and cRCCs. TOC ratio showed the trend ccRCC 〉 AML 〉 pRCC = cRCC. Similar trends were seen in tumors 〈4 cm. Using heterogeneous enhancement or TOC ratio 〉107.5% to differentiate ccRCC from other histotypes, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 93.1%, 74.5%, 84.8%, and 87.5%, respectively. Tumors 〉4 cm exhibited considerable overlap in enhancement homogeneity among different histotypes. TOC ratios were similar between homo- and heterogeneously enhancing tumors for ccRCCs and for pRCCs and cRCCs, but higher in homogeneously enhancing than heterogeneously enhancing AMLs. In homo- and heterogeneously enhancing tumors, TOC ratios followed the trends ccRCCs 〉 AMLs 〉 pRCCs = cRCCs and ccRCCs 〉 AMLs = pRCCs = cRCCs, respectively. With TOC ratio 〉105.81% and 〉72.37% to differentiate homo- and heterogeneously enhancing ccRCCs from other histotypes in tumors 〉4 cm with same enhancement homogeneity, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 70.0%, 85.7%, 70.0%, 85.7%, and 91.7%, 94.4%, 95.7%, 89.5%, respectively. Conclusion CEUS homogeneity and TOC ratio are helpful in differential diagnosis of hypo-echoic renal tumor histotypes. Diameter and enhancement homogeneity should be considered when deciding the diagnostic TOC ratio cutoff.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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