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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Zhongcheng Li, Jiaojiao Ma, Ying Zhou, Zhengmao Yin, Yubao Tang, Yinxue Ma, Debao Wang Search and design of cost-effective but high efficient functional catalysts, alternatives to noble metals, are essential for hydrogen evolution reaction. Herein, we develop the MoS 2 nanoflowers with 210–470 nm in diameter constructed by nanosheets using a facile hydrothermal method. The MoS 2 nanoflowers obtained expose greater numbers of unsaturated S atoms on the edge sites and exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activities in acidic medium. When serving in hydrogen evolution reaction, MoS 2 nanoflowers show enhanced catalytic activity with the onset potential of 117 mV and the required potential of 255 mV to achieve a current density of 10 mA/cm 2 , which is superior to commercial MoS 2 under the same conditions. Meanwhile, the MoS 2 nanoflowers also show excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the higher stability without apparent activity loss and long-term durability for 5 h are also observed. Overall, the MoS 2 nanoflowers exhibit excellent activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction and are a promising functional catalyst in practical application. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0013-4686
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Atanu Roy, Apurba Ray, Samik Saha, Monalisa Ghosh, Trisha Das, Biswarup Satpati, Mahasweta Nandi, Sachindranath Das Nickel-oxide-Carbon nanotube (NiO-CNT) composite has been synthesized and its multifunctional electrochemical properties have been demonstrated by investigating the supercapacitive performance and the oxygen evolution reactivity. The composite exhibits interlinked porous structure and offers high surface area which has been observed by X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. NiO-CNT composite offers a specific capacitance of 878.19 F g −1 at a scan rate of 2 mV s −1 along with high cyclic stability. Asymmetric supercapacitor has been fabricated with the composite material as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode and 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte medium. The device offers a specific capacitance of 197.7 F g −1 at a scan rate of 2 mV s −1 . It exhibits specific energy and specific power 85.7 Wh kg −1 and 11.2 kW kg −1 , respectively. The device is capable of powering LED and DC motor for several minutes. Moreover, NiO-CNT composite shows excellent activity as a catalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction. The composite offers an overpotential of 0.301 V. The material shows excellent long term performance. This multifunctional composite material is a promising candidate for future applications in energy storage and conversion.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Guijuan Wei, Xixia Zhao, Kun Du, Yiwen Huang, Changhua An, Shujun Qiu, Miao Liu, Shuang Yao, Yue Wu Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors (FASCs) have attracted increasing interest in portable and wearable electronics. The practical application of FASCs in high energy density devices is limited by their low specific capacity, which can be effectively addressed by designing electrode materials hierarchically on the micro-nanoscale. Herein, well-defined 3D porous hierarchical CuCo 2 O 4 @carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and Fe 2 O 3 @CQDs architectures are rationally synthesized through a simple CQDs-induced hydrothermal self-assembly technique. Both of the as-prepared CuCo 2 O 4 @CQDs and Fe 2 O 3 @CQDs electrodes exhibit improved specific capacity, desirable rate capability and complementary potential range. A FASC (CuCo 2 O 4 @CQDs//Fe 2 O 3 @CQDs) on graphite paper delivers a high operation voltage of 1.55 V, an energy density of 39.5 Wh kg −1 at 1203.7 W kg −1 , and long cycling lifespan. The excellent performance is ascribed to the good electronic conductivity with the assistance of CQDs and their unique 3D mesoporous structures with extraordinary specific surface area, which could provide fruitful active sites for electrochemical reactions. The newly developed FASC based on the Faradaic-type electrodes is inspiring, and would be promising for the applications in wearable electronic devices. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0013-4686
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Vajihe Yousefi, Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori, Abdolreza Samimi Chitosan/Montmorillonite nanocomposite films are layer-by-layer assembled over the surface of commercial unglazed wall ceramics to utilize as the separator of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The oxygen diffusion coefficient of the ceramic is decreased to about one-sixth of the blank-ceramic by the addition of seven bi-layers of the nanocomposite and fairly remained unchanged with further layer increments. The lower oxygen diffusion rate of separator provides more anoxic conditions in the anode chamber and sidelong reactions are prohibited thereby. The electrochemical impedance spectra of MFCs are interpreted using the equivalent electrical circuit fitting. The ohmic resistance is notably decreased by deposition of up to ten bi-layers of the nanocomposite, but it is slightly increased afterward for MFCs with 13 and 15 bi-layers. The charge transfer impedances have the rather similar trends with the ohmic resistance and the MFC with seven bi-layers has the minimum charge transfer resistances for both the anode and cathode electrodes. The maximum power and current densities of 119.58 ± 19.16 mW/m 2 and 869.44 ± 27.49 mA/m 2 were obtained for the MFC with seven bi-layers of nanocomposite which are twice as much as the MFC with the blank-ceramic. The wastewater treatment efficiencies of MFCs are not significantly affected by deposition of nanocomposite films. Graphical abstract
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Kukjoo Lee, Tae-Hyun Kim We develop poly(aniline- co -anthranilic acid), PAAA, as a new electrically conductive and mechanically stable polymeric binder material for silicon anodes. In contrast to the electrically conductive but poorly Si-adhering polyaniline, the PAAA copolymer, which is designed to consist of anthranilic acid units as well as aniline units, is found to adhere to Si strongly in addition to being electrically conductive, and is hence able to be used alone for the production of the silicon anode. Various PAAA copolymers having different relative amounts of anthranilic acid are prepared to investigate the effect of anthranilic acid on the electrical and physical properties of the corresponding electrodes. The copolymer whose composition is 50% aniline and 50% anthranilic acid displays the best cell performance due to the most balanced electrical conductivity and physical properties, with a specific capacity of 1946 mAh g −1 at the 50th cycle, which represents a retention of 81.6% of the initial capacity, on a high mass loading electrode of 1.5 mg cm −2 . Graphical abstract
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Yu-Jun Jin, Zhan-Guo Liu, Zhao-Ying Ding, Gui Cao, Abdelkhalek Henniche, Hai-Bin Zhang, Xu-Yang Zhen, Jia-Hu Ouyang A novel GdSmZr 2 O 7 –(Li 0.52 Na 0.48 ) 2 CO 3 composite electrolyte material is successfully developed by pressureless-sintering for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. GdSmZr 2 O 7 nanopowders are synthesized by a low cost chemical coprecipitation and calcination method. The phase structure and morphology as a function of the calcination temperature are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The resulting GdSmZr 2 O 7 nanopowders after calcination at 800 °C for 5 h exhibit good crystallization and uniform particle morphology with an average size of 50 nm. The GdSmZr 2 O 7 –40 wt.% (Li 0.52 Na 0.48 ) 2 CO 3 composite sintered at 600 °C for 1 h has a high conductivity of 0.54 S cm −1 at a temperature of 600 °C. From the Arrhenius curve of the composite, the activation energy has different temperature behaviors around the knee region of 480 °C, where the slope changes and separates the intrinsic oxygen vacancy conduction dominated region from the ‘superionic highway’ region. For GdSmZr 2 O 7 –40 wt.% (Li 0.52 Na 0.48 ) 2 CO 3 composite at temperatures above 480 °C, there is good correlation between ionic diffusivity and conductivity. The introduction of (Li 0.52 Na 0.48 ) 2 CO 3 carbonate into GdSmZr 2 O 7 ceramics significantly promotes the enhancement of its conductivity by one or two orders of magnitude at the intermediate temperatures, especially above 480 °C. A maximum power density of 221 mW cm −2 at 650 °C was achieved for excellent performance of fuel cell based on GSZ–40LN composite electrolyte.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Chenyu Wang, Xiaojun Zeng, Guangming Jiang, Meng Chen, Lingyu Zhu, Ronghai Yu Transition metal oxides are promising electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion to replace the precious metal-based electrode materials. Herein, we demonstrate a universal method for making flower-like transition metal oxides (NiO, Co 3 O 4 , NiCo 2 O 4 ) microspheres as excellent electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors. These as-obtained flower-like microspheres organized from a large number of ultrathin nanosheets, which can provide high surface area and abundant mesoporous structures. Furthermore, the as-fabricated NiO, Co 3 O 4 and NiCo 2 O 4 microspheres exhibit high specific capacities of 1210.6, 802.5 and 842.5 F g −1  at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 . Those microspheres also show good cyclability with capacities retention of 94.7%, 87% and 88.6% after 3000 cycles. The general self-template method holds great potential for the fabrication of high-performance charge storage devices. Graphical abstract
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Y. Hou, C. Aldrich, K. Lepkova, B. Kinsella The effect of bulk cargo materials - iron ore and coal – on the corrosion of cargo hulls in carriers was investigated using electrochemical noise. Two reference corrosion systems were set up with the steel samples in contact with moist silica sand and immersed in NaCl solution, which generated localised corrosion and general corrosion, respectively. The electrochemical noise was measured and recurrence quantification analysis was used to extract feature variables. A random forest model using these feature variables as predictors was able to discriminate between the two reference corrosion systems. This model was successfully applied to the assessment of carbon steel corrosion in iron ore and coal. The results predicted by the model were in agreement with visual and microscopic observations of the relevant corroded steel samples. This work provides a novel analytical approach to future on-line monitoring of carrier structures in contact with bulk cargoes.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Xianglu Meng, Hanyu Huo, Zhonghui Cui, Xiangxin Guo, Shaoming Dong Silicon suboxide (SiO x ) is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high specific capacity, small volume variation and superior cycle performance. Herein, we demonstrated the determining roles of oxygen contents on the behavior of SiO x upon lithium by means of thin-film type electrodes. The SiO x thin-film anodes with different oxygen contents were prepared by sputtering with Cu foil as substrates. XRD and Raman investigations reveal that these SiO x films are amorphous. As anodes, it is found that increasing oxygen contents in SiO x endows an enhanced cycle stability, but does harm to their initial Coulombic efficiency and capacity. Among all the a-SiO x film anodes (x = 0.4, 0.7, 1.1 and 1.5), the SiO 0.7 electrode with a thickness of 450 nm exhibits excellent cycle performance and rate capability, with a high initial discharge capacity of 463 μAh cm −2  μm −1 at the current density of 64 μA cm −2 and a high capacity retention of 90% after 300 cycles. This superior performance is ascribed to that the in-situ formed lithium oxide/silicates compounds during discharge effectively alleviates the large volume change of Si components, but also suppresses the electron leakage from the surface of active particles, shutting down the further decomposition of electrolytes and then the formation of thick solid interphase layer. These results will provide inspirations for designing high-performance Si based anodes for lithium ion batteries. Graphical abstract
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Qingfeng Zhou, Junzheng Wang, Rurong Zheng, Yun Gong, Jianhua Lin Two chromite spinel-based composite materials, Mn II Cr III 2 O 4 /Mn II Mn III 2 O 4 /C and CoCr 2 O 4 /C are successfully synthesized by a solid-state conversion process via annealing Mn Cr-coordination compound and Co Cr-coordination compound at 350 °C in air for 1 h, respectively. The two composite materials both show the morphology of nanoparticles, in which the spinels are embedded in carbon matrix into a continuous phase. The as-prepared composite materials are used as supercapacitor electrodes in basic electrolyte. The Mn II Cr III 2 O 4 /Mn II Mn III 2 O 4 /C composite material possesses a high specific capacity of 184.0 mAh g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 with a superior rate capability of 138.3 mAh g −1 (75.2% retention) at 20 A g −1 . Meanwhile, CoCr 2 O 4 /C nanoparticles also deliver a high specific capacity of 158.8 mAh g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 with a superior rate capability of 125.0 mAh g −1 (78.7% retention) at 20 A g −1 . The good supercapacitive behaviors of the two composite materials are probably attributed to the characteristics of bimetallic compound and the presence of multiple valence states in the samples, giving rise to obvious redox responses. And the Mn II Cr III 2 O 4 /Mn II Mn III 2 O 4 /C and CoCr 2 O 4 /C composites possess reversible electrochromism. Graphical abstract
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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