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  • 2015-2019  (800)
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  • 11
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The skin and subcutaneous tissues are inevitably imaged as part of most body MRI studies. Incidental or even symptomatic skin lesions may, therefore, be detected and present a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. We aim to provide a comprehensive review, with illustrative examples, of the skin abnormalities encountered on body MRI studies in our busy academic radiology department.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Purpose To determine whether the type of VHL gene pathogenic variant influences the growth rate or CT enhancement values of renal lesions in VHL patients. Materials and methods Thirty-two VHL patients (19 male) were selected from a prospectively maintained imaging database for patients that underwent surgical tumor resection between 2014 and 2016. One hundred and eleven VHL lesions were marked for resection and pathology analysis. Whole lesion volumetric segmentation was performed on nephrographic phase of the two most recent contrast-enhanced CT scans before surgery. Intensity distribution curves were obtained from segmentations. A linear mixed model, accounting for within-patient correlations, was used to compare the growth and enhancement differences between different germline pathogenic variant types. Results There was no significant difference for the lesions’ total growth between different germline pathogenic variants ( P value = 0.78). The median growth rate for all lesions was 1.7 cc/year (IQR 0.5, 3.9) with a baseline median size of 4.1 cm 3 (IQR 1.7, 11.7). In complex lesions, the solid portion of the tumor demonstrated a higher growth rate (1.6 cc/year) than cystic portions (0.02 cc/year) which stayed relatively unchanged. Only one pathogenic variant (Splice donor) showed some levels of difference in its relative enhancement from other subtypes. Conclusion The type of germline pathogenic variant on the VHL gene does not affect the growth rate or CT enhancement values of renal lesions in patients with VHL. The absolute growth rate of these tumors may be used in the scheduling of follow-up studies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Purpose To determine whether objective volumetric whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) distribution analysis improves upon the capabilities of conventional subjective small region-of-interest (ROI) ADC measurements for prediction of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtype. Methods This IRB-approved study retrospectively enrolled 55 patients (152 tumors). Diffusion-weighted imaging DWI was acquired at b values of 0, 250, and 800 s/mm 2 on a 1.5T system (Aera, Siemens Healthcare). Whole-lesion measurements were performed by a research fellow and reviewed by a fellowship-trained radiologist. Mean, median, skewness, kurtosis, and every 5th percentile ADCs were determined from the whole-lesion histogram. Linear mixed models that accounted for within-subject correlation of lesions were used to compare ADCs among RCC subtypes. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with optimal cutoff points from the Youden index was used to test the ability of ADCs to differentiate clear cell RCC (ccRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), and oncocytoma subtypes. Results Whole-lesion ADC values were significantly different between pRCC and ccRCC, and between pRCC and oncocytoma, demonstrating strong ability to differentiate subtypes across the quantiles (both P  〈 0.001). Best percentile ROC analysis demonstrated AUC values of 95.2 for ccRCC vs. pRCC; 67.6 for oncocytoma vs. ccRCC; and 95.8 for oncocytoma vs. pRCC. Best percentile ROC analysis further indicated model sensitivities/specificities of 84.5%/93.1% for ccRCC vs. pRCC; 100.0%/10.3% for oncocytoma vs. ccRCC; and 88.5%/93.1% for oncocytoma vs. pRCC. Conclusion The objective methodology of whole-lesion volumetric ADC measurements maintains the sensitivity/specificity of conventional expert-based ROI analysis, provides information on lesion heterogeneity, and reduces observer bias.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Purpose To investigate if multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) enhancement profiles can distinguish clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) with high carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) expression from ccRCCs with low CA-IX expression. Methods With IRB approval for this retrospective study, we derived a cohort of 105 histologically proven ccRCCs with preoperative 4-phase renal mass MDCT from 2001 to 2013. Following manual segmentation, the computer-assisted detection algorithm selected a 0.5-cm-diameter region of maximal attenuation within each lesion in each phase. CA-IX expression level was determined by immunohistochemical staining of tumor specimens. In the high and low CA-IX expression subgroups, the magnitude of enhancement and washout were compared using t tests; the performance of contrast washout in differentiating between subgroups was assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results ccRCCs with high and low CA-IX expression both exhibited peak enhancement in the corticomedullary phase. ccRCCs with high CA-IX expression demonstrated significantly greater relative nephrographic washout than those with low CA-IX expression (18.4% vs. 7.8%, p  = 0.03). ccRCCs with high CA-IX expression had greater relative excretory washout than ccRCCs with low CA-IX expression with a trend toward significance (33.4% vs. 25.2%, p  = 0.05). After controlling for tumor size and stage, for distinguishing ccRCCs with high and low CA-IX expression, relative excretory washout had a sensitivity, negative predictive value, accuracy, and positive predictive value of 99% (65/66), 88% (7/8), 69% (72/105), and 67% (65/97), respectively. Conclusion Relative nephrographic and excretory washout may have the potential to help distinguish ccRCCs with high and low CA-IX expression, but this requires further validation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: All women, during their lifetime, are at risk of developing some form of gynecologic malignancy. The role of FDG-PET/CT has become more established in the management of gynecologic malignancies in the last decade. In this article, we will review the role of FDG-PET/CT in endometrial, cervical, ovarian, and vaginal cancer, by highlighting its strengths and limitations. While the role in initial or pre-operative staging for FDG-PET/CT is controversial, it allows noninvasive detection of equivocal or distant metastases, may alter stage and prognosis, and can guide or help eliminate unnecessary interventions that may not be beneficial. FDG-PET/CT is a useful adjunct to traditional staging with MR and CT.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Since the introduction of CT colonography (CTC) in the mid-1990s, there have been continuous advancements in the examination technique and advanced visualization software for interpretation. This review will cover the origins of CTC as a natural extension of abdominal CT imaging, and discuss the evolution of CTC through the subsequent clinical phases of feasibility, validation, and implementation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate safety, time to recurrence, and overall survival (OS) in patients with liver metastases (LM), treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) followed by ablation. Materials and methods This retrospective study included all patients with LM treated with combined TACE and ablation from August 1998 to September 2015. Forty-two patients (12 women, 30 men; age 62.9 ± 11.9 years) were treated for 44 LMs. Tumor characteristics, imaging response to treatment, recurrence, and OS data were reviewed. Statistical analysis included Kaplan–Meier estimation, Cox regression and Fisher’s exact, Wilcoxon rank sum, or log rank tests. Results Median follow-up was 10.3 months. Eighteen patients had 1 hepatic lesion, 16 had 2–5, and 8 had 〉 5. Median index lesion size was 4.7 cm (range 1.5–8 .0 cm). Tumor response (mRECIST) was available for 41/44 treated lesions, with CR in 32 (78.0%), PR in 8 (19.5%), and PD in 1 (2.4%). Long-term imaging follow-up was available for 38 patients. Freedom from local recurrence was 61% at 1 year and 50% at 2 years. OS was 55% at 1 year and 30% at 2 years (median OS, 14.5 months). Tumor size and histology were not predictors of time to progression or OS. Complications occurred in 19 patients (45%). Major complications occurred in 19% of patients and included hospitalization for fever (n = 2), hepatic abscess (n = 3) and fall requiring transfusion, portal vein thrombus causing lobar infarct, biliary fistula, and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1 each). Conclusions Combined TACE and ablation is effective for local tumor control of liver metastases up to 8 cm when part of a multidisciplinary treatment strategy. Major complications occurred in 19% of patients.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Purpose The purpose of the study was to provide a systematic evaluation of the computed tomography(CT) findings after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer(LAPC). Methods Eighteen patients with intra-operative RFA-treated LAPC were included in a prospective case series. All CT-scans performed prior to RFA and 1 week and 3 months of post-RFA, according to standard regimen, were assessed by two radiologists in consensus, using standardized radiological scoring lists. Results 51 CT-scans were assessed. One week after RFA, the ablation zone was visible in all patients as a (partially) sharply defined (83%), heterogeneous area (94%). At 3 months of follow-up, the ablation zone was completely invaded by tumor in 67% of patients and still present, but decreased in 33%. In two patients (11%), local thrombosis and/or occlusion of the superior mesenteric vein occurred. The occlusions persisted without clinical consequences and the thrombosis disappeared. A peripancreatic fluid collection was visible 1 week after RFA in 3 patients, wherein the ablation zone extended ventrally outside of the pancreas. Conclusions Directly after RFA for LAPC, a well-defined ablation zone is visible on CT-imaging. This ablation zone is usually replaced by tumor ingrowth after 3 months. Moreover, the ablation zone regularly included vascular structures, with rare asymptomatic venous occlusion or thrombosis and without adverse effects on arteries.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Purpose On computed tomography (CT), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC) are a visibly heterogeneous group of tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between CT imaging phenotypes, patient survival, and known genetic markers. Methods A retrospective study was performed with 66 patients with surgically resected ICC. Pre-surgical CT images of ICC were assessed by radiologists blinded to tumor genetics and patient clinical data. Associations between qualitative imaging features and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were performed with Cox proportional hazards regression and visualized with Kaplan–Meier plots. Associations between radiographic features and genetic pathways (IDH1, Chromatin and RAS-MAPK) were assessed with Fisher’s Exact test and the Wilcoxon Rank sum test where appropriate and corrected for multiple comparisons within each pathway using the False Discovery Rate correction. Results Three imaging features were significantly associated with a higher risk of death: necrosis (hazard ratio (HR) 2.95 95% CI 1.44–6.04, p  = 0.029), satellite nodules (HR 3.29, 95% CI:1.35–8.02, p  = 0.029), and vascular encasement (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.28–5.41, p  = 0.029). Additionally, with each increase in axial size, the risk of death increased (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.26, p  = 0.029). Similar to findings for OS, satellite nodules (HR 3.81, 95% CI 1.88–7.71, p  = 0.002) and vascular encasement (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.24–4.06, p  = 0.019) were associated with increased risk of recurrence/death. No significant associations were found between radiographic features and genes in the IDH1, Chromatin or RAS-MAPK pathways ( p  = 0.63–84). Conclusion This preliminary analysis of resected ICC suggests associations between CT imaging features and OS and DFS. No association was identified between imaging features and currently known genetic pathways.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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