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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    IJDRA Publishing group
    free Journals Online: 1(1)2013 – (Go to Journal)
    Publisher: IJDRA Publishing group
    Electronic ISSN: 2321-6794
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Keywords: Pharmazie
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  • 2
    Keywords: Biology -- Research.;Life sciences. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (546 pages)
    ISBN: 9780309571098
    DDC: 570
    Language: English
    Note: The Life Sciences -- Copyright -- PREFACE -- CONTENTS -- MAJOR CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS -- PROLOGUE -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- Population Problems -- The Environment -- Health -- Agriculture -- The Academic Endeavor in the Life Sciences -- INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT PROGRAMS -- GRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE LIFE SCIENCES -- STIPENDS -- CURRICULA -- MEDICAL STUDENTS -- TECHNICAL ASSISTANTS -- POSTDOCTORAL EDUCATION -- RESEARCH SUPPORT -- FEDERAL RESEARCH-SUPPORTING AGENCIES -- SPECIALIZED FACILITIES -- INSTRUMENTS -- COMPUTERS -- LABORATORIES -- Museums -- Marine Biology Stations -- Biological Information -- CHAPTER ONE FRONTIERS OF BIOLOGY -- THE LANGUAGE OF LIFE -- The Genetic Material -- PROTEIN SYNTHESIS -- THE LIFE AND TIMES OF A CELL -- The Energy for Cell Work -- PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- Metabolism -- METABOLIC PATHWAYS -- METABOLIC CONTROLS -- ACTIVE TRANSPORT -- ENZYMES -- SUBCELLULAR ORGANELLES -- Cell Division -- DEVELOPMENT OF AN ORGANISM -- Development of the Nervous System -- Plant Embryogenesis -- Animal Viruses -- FORM AND FUNCTION -- Muscular Contraction -- THE CONSTANCY OF THE Milieu Interieur -- Endocrines -- PLANT AND INSECT HORMONES -- THE NERVOUS SYSTEM -- The Neuron -- SIGNALING IN NEURONS-THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION -- INITIATION OF IMPULSE ACTIVITY AT SENSE ORGANS -- The Central Nervous System -- SMALL BRAINS -- LARGER BRAINS -- INTERCALATED SYSTEMS: HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION -- BEHAVIOR -- Evolution, Inheritance, and the Development of Behavior -- Physiological Analysis of Behavior -- ORIENTATION AND HOMING -- Learning and Memory -- ECOLOGY -- Some Areas of Ecological Research -- ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES TO INDIVIDUAL ORGANISMS -- THE ABUNDANCE OF LIVING THINGS -- SPECIES INTERACTIONS -- ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS -- STABILITY AND DIVERSITY -- THE ORIGIN OF LIFE -- HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION -- Population Genetics-An Extension of Mendelism. , Cytogenetics -- HUMAN CYTOGENETICS -- Polymorphism -- Some Recent Accomplishments -- THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE -- What Is a Species? -- Origins of Species -- Origin of Higher Groups -- Extinction -- Diversity and the Conceptual Framework of Biology -- CHAPTER TWO BIOLOGY IN THE SERVICE OF MAN -- BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MEDICAL PRACTICE -- The National Health -- Diagnosis, Disease, and Drugs -- SULFONAMIDES AND ANTIMETABOLITES -- ANTIBIOTICS -- VIRAL DISEASES -- CANCER THERAPY -- GOUT -- GENETIC DISEASES -- THE IMMUNE SYSTEM -- TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION -- CARDIAC DISORDERS -- Population Control -- The Early and Latter Years of Life -- ON FEEDING MAN -- Crop Yields -- GENETICS AND AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE -- Agricultural Practice -- Animal Science -- MAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT -- Water Supplies -- Air -- Food and Drugs -- RENEWABLE RESOURCES -- Role of Science in the Management of Renewable Resources -- Principles of Management -- Environmental Management -- AGRICULTURE -- FORESTRY -- FISHERIES -- WILDLIFE -- RECREATION -- URBAN AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT -- INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY -- Pharmaceuticals -- Food -- Pesticides -- Fermentation Industry -- Instrumentation -- CHAPTER THREE THE WORLD OF BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH -- WHERE LIFE SCIENTISTS WORK -- MOBILITY OF LIFE SCIENTISTS -- PREVIOUS EDUCATION OF WORKING LIFE SCIENTISTS -- POSTDOCTORAL TRAINING -- EDUCATIONAL LIMITATIONS -- WITH WHAT MATERIALS DO LIFE SCIENTISTS WORK? -- WITH WHAT SPECIES DO LIFE SCIENTISTS WORK? -- WHAT FACILITIES AND TOOLS DO LIFE SCIENTISTS USE? -- Specialized Biological Research Facilities -- Major Instruments -- THE RESEARCH GROUP -- WHAT DO LIFE SCIENTISTS DO? -- FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES -- Utilization of Research Grants -- Research Support as a Function of the Investigator's Age -- RESEARCH INSTITUTES -- NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUMS -- BIOLOGICAL DISCIPLINES. , CHAPTER FOUR THE ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR IN THE LIFE SCIENCES -- ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS -- The Life Sciences Faculty -- UNFILLED FACULTY POSITIONS -- Graduate Education in the Life Sciences -- CAPACITY OF THE CURRENT GRADUATE EDUCATION SYSTEM -- STUDENT STIPENDS -- Postdoctoral Fellows -- FINANCING POSTDOCTORAL EDUCATION -- FOREIGN POSTDOCTORALS -- FOREIGN INTERNS AND RESIDENTS -- Laboratory Space -- The Tools of Biological Research -- SPECIALIZED RESEARCH FACILITIES -- UTILIZATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS -- MEDICAL SCHOOLS AS RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL ENTERPRISES -- Medical Students in Research -- AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS AS RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL ENTERPRISES -- FINANCING ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES -- Faculty Salaries -- CHAPTER FIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE FUTURE OF THE ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR IN THE LIFE SCIENCES -- INDIVIDUAL SCIENTISTS -- Academic Scientists -- Nonacademic Scientists -- Personal Constraints on Research -- Specialized Facilities -- Instrumentation -- DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN -- Specialized Facilities -- Instrumentation -- Improvement and Expansion of the Academic Research Endeavor -- Expansion of the Graduate Education Endeavor -- NATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS -- Museums -- In Conclusion -- CHAPTER SIX EDUCATION IN BIOLOGY -- ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION -- UNIVERSITY EDUCATION -- The Setting -- Undergraduate Curricula -- The Teaching of Biology -- TEACHING AS AN ACTIVITY -- REWARDS FOR TEACHING -- NEW METHODS OF TEACHING -- THE TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF TEACHERS -- BIOLOGY AND LIBERAL EDUCATION -- Research Training: Graduate Education in the Life Sciences -- THE INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM: FUNCTIONS AND DIVERSITY -- THE STUDENT POPULATION: SIZE, ATTRITION, LOCATION -- FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF THE GRADUATE STUDENT AND HIS EDUCATION -- THE GRADUATE PROGRAM -- THE FUTURE OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS -- CHAPTER SEVEN DIGITAL COMPUTERS IN THE LIFE SCIENCES. , GENERAL FACTS ABOUT COMPUTER USAGE -- THE STATE OF COMPUTER APPLICATION IN THE LIFE SCIENCES -- Extent of Use -- Types of Use -- Computer Use in Research Areas of the Life Sciences -- The Growth of Computer Usage -- Institutional Arrangements for Computer Use -- Funding of Computer Use -- CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS -- CHAPTER EIGHT COMMUNICATION IN THE LIFE SCIENCES -- SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN HANDLING BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION -- USERS OF BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION -- INFORMAL INFORMATION TRANSFER -- Meetings -- Informal Publications and Correspondence -- PRIMARY PUBLICATION -- The Journal -- New Forms of Primary Publication -- Future Forms of Primary Publication -- The International Literature -- REVIEW ARTICLES AND DATA COMPILATION -- SECONDARY INFORMATION SERVICES -- Functions and Desirable Characteristics of a Secondary Service -- SPECIALIZED INFORMATION CENTERS -- LIBRARIES -- LOOKING FORWARD -- CHAPTER NINE BIOLOGY AND THE FUTURE OF MAN -- THE NATURE OF MAN -- THE GREAT HAZARDS -- War -- Man and His Environment -- The Size of Human Populations -- FOOD PRODUCTION: THE SHORT-TERM PROBLEM -- POPULATION CONTROL: THE LONG-TERM PROBLEM -- Guarding the Genetic Quality of Man -- THE OPPORTUNITIES -- Biology and Medicine -- MOLECULAR DISEASES -- INFECTIOUS DISEASES -- TRANSPLANTATION AND ARTIFICIAL ORGANS -- THE ETHICS OF TERMINAL MEDICAL CARE -- GENETIC DISEASES -- REGENERATION -- THE DELIVERY OF MEDICAL CARE -- Early Environmental Influences -- Controlled Sex Determination -- Differential Fertility -- Selection and the Variability of Man -- APPENDIX A METHODOLOGY: SURVEY OF INDIVIDUAL LIFE SCIENTISTS -- POPULATION SELECTION -- DATA ANALYSIS: DEFINITIONS AND TABULATION CONSTRAINTS -- Definitions -- Constraints -- SUBCATEGORY LISTINGS REQUIRED TO ANSWER QUESTIONS 18 AND 19 -- VALIDITY OF THE RESPONDENT POPULATION. , APPENDIX B METHODOLOGY: SURVEY OF ACADEMIC LIFE SCIENCE DEPARTMENTS -- SOURCE OF DEPARTMENTAL MAILING LIST -- POPULATION SELECTION -- Definition of a Department -- Exclusion Criteria -- DATA ANALYSIS -- Definitions and Coding Restrictions -- SPECIAL DEFINITIONS -- PANELS AND CONTRIBUTORS -- PANELS OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES -- Origins of Life -- Molecular Biology -- The Materials of Life and Their Transformations -- Cellular and Subcellular Structure and Function -- Developmental Biology -- Function of Tissues and Organs -- Anatomical Sciences -- Structure and Function of the Nervous System -- Behavioral Biology -- Ecology -- Evolutionary Mechanisms and Population Biology -- The Diversity of Life -- Biological Science and the Production of Food and Fiber -- Biological Science and the Advancement of Medicine -- Human Development and Changes With Time -- Biology and Industrial Technology -- Biology and Education -- Biology and Renewable Resources -- Biology and the Future of Man -- The Role of Computers in the Life Sciences -- Environmental Health -- Biology and National Defense -- INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS TO LIFE SCIENCES STUDY -- COUNCIL ON BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES INFORMATION.
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  • 3
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    New Delhi: Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Drug Regulation has been the focus of several recent policy reform efforts in India, starting with the Mashelkar Committee Report in 2003 to the most recent report of the Ranjit Roy Chaudhary Committee in 2013. Nevertheless, the regulatory structure continues to be plagued with several structural challenges, including issues related to regulatory harmonisation between the centre and the states, access to regulatory resources, transparency, which have undermined the general effectiveness of the regulatory system. At the juncture when the Drugs and Cosmetics (Amendment) Bill, 2015 to amend the Drugs and Cosmetic Act, 1940, is expected to overhaul the drug regulation, this study, the first of its kind, evaluates the administrative structure and functions of drug regulatory authorities at both the federal and state level along with comparative perspectives on similar challenges from other international jurisdictions. Through legal and policy analysis, supported by stakeholder interactions, this study not only provides a systematic analysis of the current challenges, along with actionable policy recommendations and suggests possible means for their operationalisation.
    Keywords: I18 ; K32 ; K42 ; ddc:330 ; Government Policy ; Regulation ; Public Health ; Environmental ; Health ; Safety Law ; Illegal Behaviour and the Enforcement of Law
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: The EC harmonized market entry regulation for pharmaceuticals from the early sixties on, but it achieved neither its goal of uniform national regulatory decisions nor that of automatic mutual recognition. Subsequent attempts to Europeanize the procedures themselves resulted in two alternatives in 1995: a Centralized Procedure for innovative pharmaceutical products implemented at the EU level, and a Decentralized Procedure which tries to assure mutual recognition. First, the paper analyzes the distinctive modes of Europeanization employed in these regulatory alternatives, examining both their impact on the effectiveness of European governing and the balance they strike between European interventionism, national participation and national autonomy. Second, it tries to assess whether Europeanization furthers the goals of pharmaceutical market entry policy as defined in European regulations - public health protection, creation of a single market and the reduction of regulatory costs to industry. There is little evidence that the public's health is less well protected when regulation is Europeanized. Only the Centralized Procedure contributes significantly to the goal of establishing a single market. Regulatory costs in terms of approval time did go down especially for pharmaceutical firms using the Centralized Procedure, mainly because of efficiency-enhancing legal provisions and institutionally induced regulatory competition between national authorities.
    Description: Seit Anfang der sechziger Jahre hat die EG das Zulassungsrecht für Arzneimittel harmonisiert, ohne damit das Ziel uniformer nationaler Zulassungsentscheidungen bzw. die gegenseitige Anerkennung derselben zu erreichen. In einer zweiten Stufe kam es zu Versuchen, die Verfahren selbst zu europäisieren, was 1995 in die Einführung von zwei europäischen Zulassungsverfahren mündete - eines zentralisierten mit europäischer Implementationsstruktur für innovative Medikamente und eines dezentralen, das die gegenseitige Anerkennung nationaler Entscheidungen prozedural durchsetzen soll. In diesem Papier werden zunächst die in diesen Verfahren verwirklichten Formvarianten regulativer Europäisierung und das je charakteristische Verhältnis zwischen europäischer Intervention, nationaler Partizipation und nationaler Autonomie analysiert sowie nach der Effektivität europäischen Regierens gefragt. In einem weiteren Schritt wird abzuschätzen versucht, wie sich diese Europäisierungsstrategien auf die in der europäischen Regulierung verankerten Ziele des öffentlichen Gesundheitsschutzes, der Binnenmarktetablierung und der Industrieförderung auswirken. Es spricht wenig dafür, dass die Europäisierung des Zulassungsverfahrens den Gesundheitsschutz systematisch vernachlässigt. Zur Verwirklichung des Binnenmarkts bei Arzneimitteln trägt bislang eindeutig nur das zentralisierte Verfahren bei. Schließlich: Insbesondere durch rechtliche Vorgaben und einen institutionell induzierten regulativen Wettbewerb zwischen nationalen Behörden wurden die regulativen Kosten - gemessen in Zulassungszeiten - speziell für die Unternehmen reduziert, die das zentralisierte Verfahren nutzen können.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arzneimittelrecht ; EU-Recht ; Gesundheitspolitik ; EU-Binnenmarkt ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Description: This study provides an overview of policy measures targeting pharmaceutical expenditure in Europe and analyses their impact on originator pharmaceutical prices. Panel data methods are used to examine the market of ACE Inhibitors in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom) over period 1991-2006. We find that although some measures are effective in reducing originator prices, others appear to have an insignificant effect. Results suggest that supply side measures such as mandatory generic substitution, regressive pharmacy mark-ups and claw-backs are effective in reducing pharmaceuticals prices. Results are not as strong for demand side measures. Profit controls and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis appear to have a negative effect on prices, while results on reference pricing are inconclusive. Findings also indicate that, although originator prices are not immediately affected by generic entry, they may be influenced by changes in generic prices post patent expiry.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; regulation ; pharmaceuticals ; panel data ; Europe ; Pharmazeutisches Produkt ; Preisregulierung ; Gesundheitskosten ; Europa
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 6
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: This working document offers a conceptual framework for understanding the processes underpinning the external dimension of EU Justice and Home Affairs (ED-JHA). Practically, it defines how the export of JHA principles and norms inform the geopolitical ambitions of the EU, i.e. the use of space for political purposes, or the control and management of people, objects and movement. The author begins by investigating how the ENP reconfigures the ED-JHA, and then goes on to discuss various conceptual stances on governance, specifically institutionalism, constructivism, and policy instruments. To conclude he traces the evolution of this external dimension, emphasising, whenever possible, its continuities and bifurcations. Overall, the aim is to ascertain the extent to which conceptual designs clarify or advance our knowledge of the contents and rationales of the ED-JHA.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; neighbourhood policy ; international politics ; geopolitics ; migration ; immigration ; European security ; policy instruments ; governance ; Security and Justice ; Justice and Home Affairs ; EU-Politik ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; Öffentliche Sicherheit ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 8
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: The Philippine fishing industry is considered as one of the major industries in the agriculture and fisheries sector. The marine resources available to the country indicate its vast potential in employment creation and output growth. It is in this light that the research team conducted this study with special focus on the tuna industry. The study objectives are to (a) provide regulatory mapping imposed on the local tuna industry; (b) identify those regulations considered as unnecessary or too burdensome to the industry; and (c) provide some recommendations on removing unnecessary regulations. An important inclusion in this project is the Informed Regulatory Conversation which allows the regulators and the private sector to discuss the identified issues and come up with unified recommendations to ease the regulatory burden on different tuna industry stakeholders. The result of the regulatory mapping shows the extent and number of regulations affecting the industry. Overall, the regulations imposed on the industry, especially those concerned with food safety standards, make sense and are necessary. However, there is a case for improving the regulatory framework of the tuna industry, especially the procedures for registration, licensing, and inspection as discussed in detail in the report. The regulatory issues that were identified by the team basically focused on a) acquiring business permit; b) acquiring registration and licenses for all types of fishing vessels from MARINA, BFAR, and the local government unit; c) acquiring License to Operate from the FDA and the possible case of duplication of inspection process by the BFAR and FDA; d) acquiring Certificate of Product Registration from the FDA; e) the Qualified Person in Industry Regulatory Affairs of FDA; and f) presence of BFAR signatories for the regulatory instruments, among others. Agreements to solve the regulatory burden to address the issues are detailed in the report.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; regulatory impact analysis ; regulatory burden ; regulations ; cost of doing business ; tuna industry ; Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points ; license to operate ; business permit
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Marburg: Univ., Fachbereich Wirtschaftswiss.
    Publication Date: 2010-02-13
    Description: Contrary to some contemporary arguing, competition economics are characterized by a considerable pluralism of theories and policy paradigms. This includes deviating views on core concepts like the nature of competition, the meaning of efficiency, or the goal of antitrust. The paper demonstrates the incompatibilities of different economic competition theories and policy programs. It argues that this pluralism of concepts is both empirically sustainable and theoretically beneficial for future scientific progress. Therefore, no ultimate competition theory can ever be expected. This has to be considered when competition policy systems are designed, especially on the international level. A minimum of decentralization is necessary to maintain regulatory diversity which keeps the system open for theory innovation and changes in business environment.
    Keywords: L40 ; H77 ; B52 ; L10 ; ddc:330 ; regulatory diversity ; institutional federalism ; competition policy paradigms ; industrial economics ; centralism and decentralism ; law and economics ; methodology of science ; Wettbewerbspolitik ; Wettbewerbstheorie ; Regulierung ; Dogmengeschichte ; Institutioneller Wettbewerb ; Theorie ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-12-04
    Description: This report presents the findings of a mission to critically review the institutional, policy and regulatory framework for sustainable development of the Egyptian aquaculture sector. The study was undertaken by an International Expert on Aquaculture Policy, and a National Expert on Institutions, on behalf of the Project “Improving Employment and Income through the Development of Egypt’s Aquaculture Sector“, implemented by WorldFish and CARE, and funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation(SDC). The objective of the mission was to assess the current status of the Egyptian aquaculture sector, in terms of the policy, legal and institutional environment, with a view to suggesting the major issues to be addressed within a future policy dialogue.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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