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  • Frontiers  (2)
  • Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy  (2)
  • Alfred-Wegener-Institut  (1)
  • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel  (1)
  • 1
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: This paper aims to provide a comprehensive background and overview of key issues, debates and positions related to the international regulation and application of intellectual property rights over biological resources, including biotechnology, and the use and protection of the traditional knowledge of indigenous and local communities. It explores the linkages among biological diversity, rural livelihoods, biotechnology developments and intellectual property with specific view on the relationship between access to biological and genetic resources, agriculture systems, food security, and increased poverty levels around the world. The paper starts by outlining the background and evolution of intellectual property rights. It then provides two case studies on how intellectual property rights affect biodiversity and traditional knowledge. In the main part, the paper indulges on the international governance of biodiversity and intellecutal property rights, especially focussing on the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the World Intellecutal Property Organization (WIPO), and the World Trade Organization with its Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellecutal Property Rights (TRIPS). However it also sheds light on the increasing impacts of bilateral agreements that govern intellectual property rights in conjunction with the plurilateral International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), and it analyses their relationship with the FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the CBD. The paper finishes by sketching out ideas for a way forward.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingPaper
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2024-02-07
    Description: Coastal countries have traditionally relied on the existing marine resources (e.g., fishing, food, transport, recreation, and tourism) as well as tried to support new economic endeavors (ocean energy, desalination for water supply, and seabed mining). Modern societies and lifestyle resulted in an increased demand for dietary diversity, better health and well-being, new biomedicines, natural cosmeceuticals, environmental conservation, and sustainable energy sources. These societal needs stimulated the interest of researchers on the diverse and underexplored marine environments as promising and sustainable sources of biomolecules and biomass, and they are addressed by the emerging field of marine (blue) biotechnology. Blue biotechnology provides opportunities for a wide range of initiatives of commercial interest for the pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food, feed, agricultural, and related industries. This article synthesizes the essence, opportunities, responsibilities, and challenges encountered in marine biotechnology and outlines the attainment and valorization of directly derived or bio-inspired products from marine organisms. First, the concept of bioeconomy is introduced. Then, the diversity of marine bioresources including an overview of the most prominent marine organisms and their potential for biotechnological uses are described. This is followed by introducing methodologies for exploration of these resources and the main use case scenarios in energy, food and feed, agronomy, bioremediation and climate change, cosmeceuticals, bio-inspired materials, healthcare, and well-being sectors. The key aspects in the fields of legislation and funding are provided, with the emphasis on the importance of communication and stakeholder engagement at all levels of biotechnology development. Finally, vital overarching concepts, such as the quadruple helix and Responsible Research and Innovation principle are highlighted as important to follow within the marine biotechnology field. The authors of this review are collaborating under the European Commission-funded Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action Ocean4Biotech – European transdisciplinary networking platform for marine biotechnology and focus the study on the European state of affairs.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2023-02-08
    Description: Marine organisms produce a vast diversity of metabolites with biological activities useful for humans, e.g., cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, insecticidal, herbicidal, anticancer, pro-osteogenic and pro-regenerative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, cholesterol-lowering, nutritional, photoprotective, horticultural or other beneficial properties. These metabolites could help satisfy the increasing demand for alternative sources of nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, food, feed, and novel bio-based products. In addition, marine biomass itself can serve as the source material for the production of various bulk commodities (e.g., biofuels, bioplastics, biomaterials). The sustainable exploitation of marine bio-resources and the development of biomolecules and polymers are also known as the growing field of marine biotechnology. Up to now, over 35,000 natural products have been characterized from marine organisms, but many more are yet to be uncovered, as the vast diversity of biota in the marine systems remains largely unexplored. Since marine biotechnology is still in its infancy, there is a need to create effective, operational, inclusive, sustainable, transnational and transdisciplinary networks with a serious and ambitious commitment for knowledge transfer, training provision, dissemination of best practices and identification of the emerging technological trends through science communication activities. A collaborative (net)work is today compelling to provide innovative solutions and products that can be commercialized to contribute to the circular bioeconomy. This perspective article highlights the importance of establishing such collaborative frameworks using the example of Ocean4Biotech, an Action within the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) that connects all and any stakeholders with an interest in marine biotechnology in Europe and beyond.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: archive
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: This study conducted by Wuppertal Institute and Germanwatch explores how the social pillar of sustainability at the local level could be met in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) projects. For this purpose, the authors evaluate the livelihood dimension of CSP technology based on a case study conducted on the 160 MW pilot CSP plant Nooro I in Ouarzazate, Morocco.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
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    Alfred-Wegener-Institut
    In:  EPIC3Communications and Media Relations, Bremerhaven, Alfred-Wegener-Institut, 360 p.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Outreach , notRev
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
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    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
    In:  Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 118 pp.
    Publication Date: 2020-09-30
    Description: 2006 - 2019
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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