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  • Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie  (3)
  • Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)  (1)
  • 1
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: This paper aims to provide a comprehensive background and overview of key issues, debates and positions related to the international regulation and application of intellectual property rights over biological resources, including biotechnology, and the use and protection of the traditional knowledge of indigenous and local communities. It explores the linkages among biological diversity, rural livelihoods, biotechnology developments and intellectual property with specific view on the relationship between access to biological and genetic resources, agriculture systems, food security, and increased poverty levels around the world. The paper starts by outlining the background and evolution of intellectual property rights. It then provides two case studies on how intellectual property rights affect biodiversity and traditional knowledge. In the main part, the paper indulges on the international governance of biodiversity and intellecutal property rights, especially focussing on the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the World Intellecutal Property Organization (WIPO), and the World Trade Organization with its Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellecutal Property Rights (TRIPS). However it also sheds light on the increasing impacts of bilateral agreements that govern intellectual property rights in conjunction with the plurilateral International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), and it analyses their relationship with the FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the CBD. The paper finishes by sketching out ideas for a way forward.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingPaper
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
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  • 2
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: This report presents the findings and recommendations of the EMI case study undertaken as part of the Digital Europe project. Chapter 2 sets out the background to the case study; chapter 3 investigates the environmental impacts of digital music; and chapter 4 highlights the social impacts of digital music. Chapter 5 outlines future scenarios for the sector and chapter 6 draws recommendations for business and government.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
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  • 3
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingPaper
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
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  • 4
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    Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)
    Publication Date: 2023-06-29
    Description: The contamination of the environment with whole plastics or pieces thereof (microand nanoplastics) is the subject of extensive discussion nowadays in academia and the media. In addition to environmental matrices, micro- and nanoplastics have been detected in fishery products and other important food commodities, with concerns over their impact on human health. Food consumption is considered one of most significant routes of human exposure to these small plastic particles. Such concerns may arise not only from the exposure to reactive monomers in the otherwise biologically inert polymer structure, but also from their associated contaminants. Many studies have reported neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity among the main consequences of exposure to micro- and nanoplastics. This document outlines the existing literature on the occurrence of microplastics and their associated contaminants in foods. It estimates the dietary exposure of consumers to these materials, highlights some knowledge gaps with respect to their relevance to public health, and offers some recommendations for future work on microplastic particles to support food safety governance.
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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