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GEOMAR Library Ocean Research Information Access

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  • Frontiers  (2)
  • International Phycological Society  (2)
  • Alfred-Wegener-Institut  (1)
  • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2024-02-07
    Description: Coastal countries have traditionally relied on the existing marine resources (e.g., fishing, food, transport, recreation, and tourism) as well as tried to support new economic endeavors (ocean energy, desalination for water supply, and seabed mining). Modern societies and lifestyle resulted in an increased demand for dietary diversity, better health and well-being, new biomedicines, natural cosmeceuticals, environmental conservation, and sustainable energy sources. These societal needs stimulated the interest of researchers on the diverse and underexplored marine environments as promising and sustainable sources of biomolecules and biomass, and they are addressed by the emerging field of marine (blue) biotechnology. Blue biotechnology provides opportunities for a wide range of initiatives of commercial interest for the pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food, feed, agricultural, and related industries. This article synthesizes the essence, opportunities, responsibilities, and challenges encountered in marine biotechnology and outlines the attainment and valorization of directly derived or bio-inspired products from marine organisms. First, the concept of bioeconomy is introduced. Then, the diversity of marine bioresources including an overview of the most prominent marine organisms and their potential for biotechnological uses are described. This is followed by introducing methodologies for exploration of these resources and the main use case scenarios in energy, food and feed, agronomy, bioremediation and climate change, cosmeceuticals, bio-inspired materials, healthcare, and well-being sectors. The key aspects in the fields of legislation and funding are provided, with the emphasis on the importance of communication and stakeholder engagement at all levels of biotechnology development. Finally, vital overarching concepts, such as the quadruple helix and Responsible Research and Innovation principle are highlighted as important to follow within the marine biotechnology field. The authors of this review are collaborating under the European Commission-funded Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action Ocean4Biotech – European transdisciplinary networking platform for marine biotechnology and focus the study on the European state of affairs.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2023-02-08
    Description: Marine organisms produce a vast diversity of metabolites with biological activities useful for humans, e.g., cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, insecticidal, herbicidal, anticancer, pro-osteogenic and pro-regenerative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, cholesterol-lowering, nutritional, photoprotective, horticultural or other beneficial properties. These metabolites could help satisfy the increasing demand for alternative sources of nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, food, feed, and novel bio-based products. In addition, marine biomass itself can serve as the source material for the production of various bulk commodities (e.g., biofuels, bioplastics, biomaterials). The sustainable exploitation of marine bio-resources and the development of biomolecules and polymers are also known as the growing field of marine biotechnology. Up to now, over 35,000 natural products have been characterized from marine organisms, but many more are yet to be uncovered, as the vast diversity of biota in the marine systems remains largely unexplored. Since marine biotechnology is still in its infancy, there is a need to create effective, operational, inclusive, sustainable, transnational and transdisciplinary networks with a serious and ambitious commitment for knowledge transfer, training provision, dissemination of best practices and identification of the emerging technological trends through science communication activities. A collaborative (net)work is today compelling to provide innovative solutions and products that can be commercialized to contribute to the circular bioeconomy. This perspective article highlights the importance of establishing such collaborative frameworks using the example of Ocean4Biotech, an Action within the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) that connects all and any stakeholders with an interest in marine biotechnology in Europe and beyond.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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    Format: archive
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  • 3
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    International Phycological Society
    In:  Phycologia, 52 (4, Supplement). p. 119.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: To evaluate the importance of anti-herbivore resistance for algal invasion success we compared resistance traits among specimens of the red macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla from six native populations in Korea and China and eight invasive populations in Europe and Mexico that were maintained under identical conditions in the laboratory. Herbivorous snails both from the native range (Littorina brevicula) and from the invaded range (Littorina littorea) consumed significantly less of seaweed specimens originating from non-native populations. Metabolome profiling revealed that this preference was correlated with an increased woundactivated production of deterring prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Thus, invasive populations of G. vermiculophylla are more strongly defended against challenge by herbivores and other biological enemies that cause local tissue or cell disruption and activate oxylipin production. Anthropogenic distribution of genotypes adapted to resist elevated feeding pressure probably contributed to the invasion success of this species.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Grazing by the isopod Idotea baltica induces chemical defenses in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. A combination of a 33 day induction experiment, feeding choice assays and functional genomic analyses was used to investigate temporal defense patterns and to correlate changes in palatability to changes in gene expression. Despite permanent grazing, seaweed palatability varied over time. Controls were significantly more consumed than grazed pieces only after 18 and 27 days of grazing. Relative to controls, 562/402 genes were up-/down-regulated in seaweed pieces that were grazed for 18 days, i.e. when defense induction was detected. Reprogramming of the regulative expression orchestra (translation, transcription), up-regulation of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, intracellular trafficking, defense and stress response, as well as downregulation of photosynthesis was found in grazed seaweed. These findings indicate short-term temporal variation in defenses and that modified gene expression patterns arise at the same time when grazed seaweed pieces show reduced palatability. Several genes with putative defensive functions and cellular processes potentially involved in defence, such as reallocation of resources from primary to secondary metabolism, were revealed
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    Alfred-Wegener-Institut
    In:  EPIC3Communications and Media Relations, Bremerhaven, Alfred-Wegener-Institut, 360 p.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Outreach , notRev
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
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    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
    In:  Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 118 pp.
    Publication Date: 2020-09-30
    Description: 2006 - 2019
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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