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  • 1
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    International Phycological Society
    In:  Phycologia, 52 (4, Supplement). p. 119.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: To evaluate the importance of anti-herbivore resistance for algal invasion success we compared resistance traits among specimens of the red macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla from six native populations in Korea and China and eight invasive populations in Europe and Mexico that were maintained under identical conditions in the laboratory. Herbivorous snails both from the native range (Littorina brevicula) and from the invaded range (Littorina littorea) consumed significantly less of seaweed specimens originating from non-native populations. Metabolome profiling revealed that this preference was correlated with an increased woundactivated production of deterring prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Thus, invasive populations of G. vermiculophylla are more strongly defended against challenge by herbivores and other biological enemies that cause local tissue or cell disruption and activate oxylipin production. Anthropogenic distribution of genotypes adapted to resist elevated feeding pressure probably contributed to the invasion success of this species.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Grazing by the isopod Idotea baltica induces chemical defenses in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. A combination of a 33 day induction experiment, feeding choice assays and functional genomic analyses was used to investigate temporal defense patterns and to correlate changes in palatability to changes in gene expression. Despite permanent grazing, seaweed palatability varied over time. Controls were significantly more consumed than grazed pieces only after 18 and 27 days of grazing. Relative to controls, 562/402 genes were up-/down-regulated in seaweed pieces that were grazed for 18 days, i.e. when defense induction was detected. Reprogramming of the regulative expression orchestra (translation, transcription), up-regulation of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, intracellular trafficking, defense and stress response, as well as downregulation of photosynthesis was found in grazed seaweed. These findings indicate short-term temporal variation in defenses and that modified gene expression patterns arise at the same time when grazed seaweed pieces show reduced palatability. Several genes with putative defensive functions and cellular processes potentially involved in defence, such as reallocation of resources from primary to secondary metabolism, were revealed
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)
    Publication Date: 2023-06-29
    Description: The contamination of the environment with whole plastics or pieces thereof (microand nanoplastics) is the subject of extensive discussion nowadays in academia and the media. In addition to environmental matrices, micro- and nanoplastics have been detected in fishery products and other important food commodities, with concerns over their impact on human health. Food consumption is considered one of most significant routes of human exposure to these small plastic particles. Such concerns may arise not only from the exposure to reactive monomers in the otherwise biologically inert polymer structure, but also from their associated contaminants. Many studies have reported neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity among the main consequences of exposure to micro- and nanoplastics. This document outlines the existing literature on the occurrence of microplastics and their associated contaminants in foods. It estimates the dietary exposure of consumers to these materials, highlights some knowledge gaps with respect to their relevance to public health, and offers some recommendations for future work on microplastic particles to support food safety governance.
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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