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  • 1
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    International Phycological Society
    In:  Phycologia, 52 (4, Supplement). p. 119.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: To evaluate the importance of anti-herbivore resistance for algal invasion success we compared resistance traits among specimens of the red macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla from six native populations in Korea and China and eight invasive populations in Europe and Mexico that were maintained under identical conditions in the laboratory. Herbivorous snails both from the native range (Littorina brevicula) and from the invaded range (Littorina littorea) consumed significantly less of seaweed specimens originating from non-native populations. Metabolome profiling revealed that this preference was correlated with an increased woundactivated production of deterring prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Thus, invasive populations of G. vermiculophylla are more strongly defended against challenge by herbivores and other biological enemies that cause local tissue or cell disruption and activate oxylipin production. Anthropogenic distribution of genotypes adapted to resist elevated feeding pressure probably contributed to the invasion success of this species.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Grazing by the isopod Idotea baltica induces chemical defenses in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. A combination of a 33 day induction experiment, feeding choice assays and functional genomic analyses was used to investigate temporal defense patterns and to correlate changes in palatability to changes in gene expression. Despite permanent grazing, seaweed palatability varied over time. Controls were significantly more consumed than grazed pieces only after 18 and 27 days of grazing. Relative to controls, 562/402 genes were up-/down-regulated in seaweed pieces that were grazed for 18 days, i.e. when defense induction was detected. Reprogramming of the regulative expression orchestra (translation, transcription), up-regulation of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, intracellular trafficking, defense and stress response, as well as downregulation of photosynthesis was found in grazed seaweed. These findings indicate short-term temporal variation in defenses and that modified gene expression patterns arise at the same time when grazed seaweed pieces show reduced palatability. Several genes with putative defensive functions and cellular processes potentially involved in defence, such as reallocation of resources from primary to secondary metabolism, were revealed
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
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    FAO
    In:  EPIC3FAO, ISBN: 9789251377147
    Publication Date: 2024-04-25
    Description: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have significant impacts on food safety and security through contamination or mass mortalities of aquatic organisms. Indeed, if not properly controlled, aquatic products contaminated with HAB biotoxins are responsible for potentially deadly foodborne diseases and when rapidly growing, HAB consequences include reduced dissolved oxygen in the ocean, dead zones, and mass mortalities of aquatic organisms. Improving HAB forecasting is an opportunity to develop early warning systems for HAB events such as food contamination, mass mortalities, or foodborne diseases. Surveillance systems have been developed to monitor HABs in many countries; however, the lead-time or the type of data (i.e. identification at the Species-level, determination of toxicity) may not be sufficient to take effective action for food safety management measures or other reasons, such as transfer of aquaculture products to other areas. Having early warning systems could help mitigate the impact of HABs and reduce the occurrence of HAB events. In this regard, FAO took the lead in the development of a Joint FAO-IOC-IAEA Technical Guidance for the Implementation of Early Warning Systems for HABs. The document will guide competent authorities and relevant institutions involved in consumer protection or environmental monitoring to implement early warning systems for HABs present in their areas (marine and brackish waters), specifically for those affecting food safety or food security (benthic HABs, fish-killing HABs, pelagic toxic HABs, and cyanobacteria HABs).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , peerRev
    Format: application/pdf
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