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  • DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus Univ.  (1)
  • Elsevier  (1)
  • Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus Hansen , Martin Grunow Shorter product life cycles and the resulting increase in new product introductions boost the importance of product launch operations. In the pharmaceutical sector, product launch operations are of particular importance, as companies seek to reduce time-to-market to better exploit patent protection. Large volumes of product need to be ready to fill the downstream supply chain immediately at market launch. Building up the required inventory is, however, connected to several risks. In addition to the risk associated with the lack of demand information for a new product, there are several risks unique to the pharmaceutical sector. After approval by central authorities such as the FDA or EMA, a new drug still needs to receive market authorization, which is in most cases granted by some local authorities - in Europe, for example, by more than 30 national and regional bodies. The duration of these different market authorization processes as well as their outcomes (e.g. price and reimbursement levels, requirements of label or leaflet changes) are highly uncertain. We develop a two-stage stochastic model to support market launch preparation decisions. It trades off the costs of accepting these risks, for example by risk packaging before authorization, against the lost revenue caused by risk-averse operations. The model is applied to a case based on an empirical study. Our approach results in significant savings compared to current practices. We hereby provide an example of how quantitative methodology can provide valuable decision support for product launch operations, even when complex regulatory affairs need to be considered.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 2
    DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus Univ.
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Description: This book is about management of arctic and northern alpine research stations. It has been produced by a group of station managers participating in the EU 7th Framework Programme Infrastructure project called INTERACT. With this book we want to share the knowledge and experiences we have gained from managing very different research stations in very different environmental and climatic settings. The target audience for the book is mainly managers of research stations in arctic and alpine areas, but we hope that it will also be useful for others involved in science coordination and logistics, e.g. research institutions, chief scientists and expedition planners. The book has been produced mainly based on input from practising station managers being part of ‘INTERACT Station Managers’ Forum (SMF), a forum established to provide a platform for exchange of information between station managers and other participants within INTERACT, and to collect and disseminate knowledge embedded within the network. The scope of this book is to identify and describe best practices and key considerations of relevance to station management under arctic and alpine conditions. As research stations operate under very different legal regimes, financial conditions, environmental and climatic conditions, as well as remoteness, it is not possible to identify specific best practices that fit all stations. Instead, we have described key issues that should be considered and addressed by station management, and supplemented this with examples of good practices from stations operating under different conditions (e.g. different climate, remoteness or size).
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/book
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)
    Publication Date: 2023-06-29
    Description: The contamination of the environment with whole plastics or pieces thereof (microand nanoplastics) is the subject of extensive discussion nowadays in academia and the media. In addition to environmental matrices, micro- and nanoplastics have been detected in fishery products and other important food commodities, with concerns over their impact on human health. Food consumption is considered one of most significant routes of human exposure to these small plastic particles. Such concerns may arise not only from the exposure to reactive monomers in the otherwise biologically inert polymer structure, but also from their associated contaminants. Many studies have reported neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity among the main consequences of exposure to micro- and nanoplastics. This document outlines the existing literature on the occurrence of microplastics and their associated contaminants in foods. It estimates the dietary exposure of consumers to these materials, highlights some knowledge gaps with respect to their relevance to public health, and offers some recommendations for future work on microplastic particles to support food safety governance.
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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