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  • 1
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- Part I Gravity Field Modelling and Height Systems -- Remarks on the Terrain Correction and the Geoid Bias -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Terrain Correction for Masses Located in the Remote Zone of the Bouguer Shell -- 3 The Terrain Correction for Masses Located Outside the Bouguer Plate -- 4 The Terrain Correction Due to Masses in the Near-Zone Inside the Bouguer Plate -- 5 Conclusions -- References -- Why a Height Theory Must Be Rigorous and Physically Correct -- 1 Review -- 2 Problems with Molodensky's Approach -- 3 Arrival of Satellites and the Problem of Height Congruency -- 4 Conclusions -- References -- Geodetic Heights and Holonomity -- 1 Introduction -- 2 What Is a Geodetic Heigh? -- 2.1 A New Definition of a General Geodetic Height HG -- 3 The Four Height Systems Are Geodetic Heights -- 4 Holonomity of the Geodetic Heights -- 5 Comparisons and Conclusions -- References -- Physical Heights of Inland Lakes -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Orthometric Height -- 3 Orthometric Height Variation at Lake Surface -- 4 Quantification: Case Studies -- 4.1 Lake Vänern, Sweden -- 4.2 Lake Michigan, USA -- 4.3 Issyk Kul, Kyrgyzstan -- 4.4 Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia -- 5 Conclusions and Outlook -- Appendix 1: Approximation -- Appendix 2: Normal Height Variation -- References -- The Uncertainties of the Topographical Density Variations in View of a Sub-Centimetre Geoid -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Theory -- 3 Numerical Results -- 4 Conclusion and Remarks -- References -- Estimation of Height Anomalies from Gradients of the Gravitational Potential Using a Spectral Combination Method -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Spectral Combination -- 3 Numerical Experiments -- 4 Conclusion -- References -- Evaluation of the Recent African Gravity Databases V2.x -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Data Used for Establishing the AFRGDB_V2.x Gravity Databases.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (189 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783031553608
    Series Statement: International Association of Geodesy Symposia Series v.155
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cham : Springer International Publishing AG
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Foreword by Florian Schütz -- Foreword by Jan Kleijssen -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Reviewers -- Acronyms -- Part I Introduction -- 1 From Deep Neural Language Models to LLMs -- 1.1 What LLMs Are and What LLMs Are Not -- 1.2 Principles of LLMs -- 1.2.1 Deep Neural Language Models -- 1.2.2 Generative Deep Neural Language Models -- 1.2.3 Generating Text -- 1.2.4 Memorization vs Generalization -- 1.2.5 Effect of the Model and Training Dataset Size -- References -- 2 Adapting LLMs to Downstream Applications -- 2.1 Prompt Optimization -- 2.2 Pre-Prompting and Implicit Prompting -- 2.3 Model Coordination: Actor-Agents -- 2.4 Integration with Tools -- 2.5 Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning -- 2.6 Fine-Tuning -- 2.7 Further Pretraining -- 2.8 From-Scratch Re-Training -- 2.9 Domain-Specific Distillation -- References -- 3 Overview of Existing LLM Families -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Pre-Transformer LLMs -- 3.3 BERT and Friends -- 3.4 GPT Family Proper -- 3.5 Generative Autoregressors (GPT Alternatives) -- 3.6 Compute-Optimal Models -- 3.6.1 LLaMA Family -- 3.7 Full-Transformer/Sequence-to-Sequence Models -- 3.8 Multimodal and Mixture-of-Experts Models -- 3.8.1 Multimodal Visual LLMs -- 3.8.2 Pathways Language Model, PaLM -- 3.8.3 GPT-4 and BingChat -- References -- 4 Conversational Agents -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 GPT Related Conversational Agents -- 4.3 Alternative Conversational Agent LLMs -- 4.3.1 Conversational Agents Without Auxiliary Capabilities -- 4.3.2 Conversational Agents With Auxiliary Capabilities -- 4.3.2.1 Models With Non-Knowledge Auxiliary Capabilities -- 4.4 Conclusion -- References -- 5 Fundamental Limitations of Generative LLMs -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Generative LLMs Cannot Be Factual -- 5.3 Generative LLMs With Auxiliary Tools Still Struggle To Be Factual.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (249 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783031548277
    Language: English
    Note: Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Basel/Berlin/Boston : Walter de Gruyter GmbH
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Table of Contents -- International organizations and development -- Development, international organizations and international economic thinking: a conceptual contribution -- The legacy of Mahbub ul Haq: Exploring human development and economic rights at the United Nations -- Development beyond the golden era: CEPAL in the global 1970s -- Planning growth and population. The debate on population and development at the UN and the origins of UNFPA -- An unfinished mission: UNESCO in deploying science and education for global development, 1945-1956 -- The WFP 1968-72 rural housing program in Morocco -- The politicization of development: Oxfam and the idea of a rights-based humanitarian action in the Salvadoran refugee camps in Honduras during the 1980s -- Human rights and development: The World Bank, Amnesty International, and the history of a difficult relationship -- The titans and tensions of progressive era philanthropy in global development -- List of Contributors.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (298 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783111280356
    Series Statement: Yearbook for the History of Global Development Series v.3
    Language: English
    Note: Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cham : Springer International Publishing AG
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- 1 Introduction -- Genomic Allure in the Muslim World -- Understudied Topic -- Bridging the Gaps -- Overall Structure of the Study -- 2 Constructing a Comprehensive Discourse -- Theoretical Level: Metaethics and Normative Ethics -- Metaethics -- Normative Ethics -- Practical Level: Fivefold Classification of Human Acts -- Applied Case: Incidental Findings (IFs) -- 3 Ethical Judgment of What (Not) to Be Disclosed -- Incidental Findings (IFs) as a Technical Term -- (A) Obligatory -- A-1 Likelihood of IFs -- A-2 Life-Saving Information -- (B) Prohibited: Misattributed Paternity -- B-1 Prohibited Disclosure -- B-2 Obligatory Disclosure -- (C) Recommended -- C-1 Theoretical Framing: Seeking Medical Treatment (tadāwī) and Providing Medical Care (taṭbīb) -- C-2 Applied Example: ACMG List -- (D) Reprehensible -- D-1 Theoretical Framing: Distant Lineage -- D-2 Applied Example: Genetic Ancestry -- Afterword -- Appendix A Ethical Judgments on Incidental Findings (IFs): A Systematic Overview -- Appendix B Islamic Ethics and Genomics: Drafting National Policy -- Background -- Scope and Purpose -- Related Documents -- Religio-Ethical Framing -- Collective Duty -- Benefit-Harm Assessment -- Informed Consent -- Women's Consent -- Genomics and Consent -- Privacy and Confidentiality -- Data Sharing -- Incidental Findings -- Family Members -- Adult-Onset Only Conditions -- Premarital Genetic Testing -- Genetic Discrimination and Stigmatization -- Public Engagement -- -4pt- Glossary -- References.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (100 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783031594052
    Series Statement: SpringerBriefs in Ethics Series
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cham : Springer International Publishing AG
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Foreword: The Importance of Integrating Cultural Heritage into the UN Ocean Decade -- References -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- Abbreviations -- List of Figures -- List of Table -- Chapter 1: Introduction -- 1.1 The Importance of Our Ocean Heritage -- 1.1.1 Cultural Heritage -- 1.1.2 Natural Heritage -- 1.1.3 Underwater Cultural Heritage as Both Natural and Cultural -- 1.2 Steps Forward -- References -- Chapter 2: History of Trawling and Ecological Impact -- 2.1 The History of Trawling -- 2.1.1 Dredging -- 2.2 The Ecological Impact -- 2.3 Regional Case Studies -- 2.3.1 Pacific -- 2.3.1.1 West Africa -- 2.3.2 Arctic -- 2.3.3 Prehistoric Material -- 2.4 Management of Trawling and Fishery Sustainability -- 2.5 Marine Protected Areas and Spillover -- References -- Chapter 3: The Duty to Protect Our Ocean Heritage from Bottom Trawling -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Sources of Duty to Protect Cultural Heritage -- 3.2.1 The 1972 Stockholm Declaration and the World Heritage Convention -- 3.2.2 The 1982 UN Law of the Sea Convention -- 3.2.2.1 Duty to Protect Cultural Heritage Under Article 149 and 303 -- Article 149 -- Article 303 -- 3.2.2.2 Duty to Protect Cultural Heritage Under Article 192 -- 3.2.3 The 1992 Rio Declaration -- 3.2.4 The UNESCO 2001 Convention -- 3.3 The Precautionary Principle -- 3.4 Steps Forward -- References -- Cases -- Chapter 4: Quantification of Bottom Trawl Damage to Ancient Shipwrecks: A Case Study from the Coastal Waters of Turkey -- 4.1 Trawling in the Mediterranean -- 4.2 Nautilus Expeditions 2008-2012 -- 4.2.1 Yalıkavak -- 4.2.2 Knidos -- 4.2.3 Sinop -- 4.2.4 Ereğli -- 4.3 Quantification -- 4.4 Updated Work -- 4.5 Marine Protected Areas -- 4.6 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 5: Wreck Sites as Systems Disrupted by Trawling -- 5.1 Introduction.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (124 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783031579530
    Series Statement: SpringerBriefs in Archaeology Series
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cham : Springer International Publishing AG
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- Contributors -- Theoretical Perspectives -- Generic Motion Components for Sonic Design -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Sonic Features -- 3 Generative Features -- 4 Multimodality -- 5 Analytic Tools -- 6 Textures and Roles -- 7 Ontological Reflections -- 8 Musical Translation -- 9 Conclusions -- References -- Sound Design and the Theory of Self-augmented Interactions -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Strategies: Stimulus-Response or Interaction? -- 3 Components: Emergent Patterns and Expressive Gestures -- 3.1 Pattern Emergence -- 3.2 Gestural Expression -- 4 Capacities: Affordance, Entrainment and Anticipation -- 4.1 Affordance Capacity -- 4.2 Entrainment Capacity -- 4.3 Anticipation Capacity -- 5 Sound Design and the Theory of Self-augmented Interaction -- 5.1 What is Self-augmented Interaction? -- 5.2 A Model for Self-augmented Interaction -- 5.3 Foundations in Expression Theory -- 6 Biofeedback Systems -- 6.1 Sound Design in Biofeedback Systems -- 6.2 Ethical Considerations of Sound Design -- 7 Conclusion -- References -- Musical Meter as Shape: An Embodied Perspective on Metrical Trajectories and Curves -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Music and Motion -- 3 Meter-Related Motion -- 4 Toward a Theory of Meter as Shape -- 5 Metrical Shapes in Norwegian Folk Music and Dance -- 6 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Prelude to a Theory of Gestural Time, Proto-Geometry, and Music -- 1 Introduction -- 2 From Gestural Objects to Gestural Time -- 3 Husserl's Proto-Geometry -- 4 Micro-gesture and Phenomenological Variation -- 5 Experience Matters -- References -- A Grammar of Expressive Conducting Gestures -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Related Work -- 2.1 Sound-Related Gestures -- 2.2 Conducting Gestures -- 2.3 Motivation -- 3 Similarities Between Sign Language and Conducting Gestures -- 3.1 Phonological Components -- 4 Spatiality -- 5 Iconicity.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (347 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783031578922
    Series Statement: Current Research in Systematic Musicology Series v.12
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Preface -- Organization -- Contents -- Keynote Papers -- Life-Cycle Risk, Resilience, and Sustainability of Individual and Spatially Distributed Structures -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Lessons from Recent Large Earthquakes in Japan -- 3 Toward Life-Cycle Based Design and Assessment of Bridges and Bridge Networks Under Multiple Hazards -- 3.1 Progress of Structural Performance Methodology and Associated Performance Indicators -- 3.2 Multiple Hazard Issues -- 4 Illustrative Examples -- 5 Conclusions -- References -- Reliability and Durability of Built Environment Under Impact of Climate Natural Hazards -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Case Study: Large Span Steel Frame Production Unit Exposed to Extreme Drifted Snow -- 2.1 Building Description -- 2.2 Heavy Snowfall and Damage to the Building -- 2.3 Numerical Simulation of the Accidental Snow Load Effects on the Roof -- 3 Case Study: Roofing of Large Span Concrete Frame Industrial Building Exposed to Extreme Wind -- 3.1 Building Description -- 3.2 Windstorm Damage to the Building Roofing and Enclosure Walls -- 4 Conclusions -- References -- Sustainable Infrastructures -- Integration of Carbon Emissions Estimates into Climate Resilience Frameworks for Transport Asset Recovery -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Integrating Environmental Impact into Resilience Frameworks -- 3 Environmental Impact Assessments -- 3.1 Environmental Impact Modelling -- 3.2 Restoration Tasks -- 4 Results and Discussion -- 4.1 Environmental Impact -- 4.2 Circularity Considerations -- 5 Conclusions -- References -- Resilience Framework for Aged Bridges Subjected to Human-Induced Hazard - Case Study in Ukraine -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Resilience Framework for Combined Ageing and Human-Induced Hazards -- 3 Case Study of Post-conflict Recovery in Ukraine -- 3.1 Portfolio of Bridges -- 3.2 Vulnerability Analysis -- 3.3 Resilience Analysis.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (713 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783031578007
    Series Statement: Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering Series v.489
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cham : Springer International Publishing AG
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Series Editors' Foreword -- Contents -- 1 Introduction -- References -- 2 Climate Change, Global Scales and Safety -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 An Empirical Illustration -- 2.3 From Natech to Socio-Natech -- 2.4 Post Normal Accident (Post NA): Global Scales (New Causal Regime) -- 2.5 Conclusion -- References -- 3 On the Future of Industrial Safety Research -- 3.1 What Does Climate Change Mean for Industrial Safety and Safety Research? -- 3.2 What Climate Change Does to Industrial Safety -- 3.2.1 How Can Safety Be Managed Given the Path of Ever Greater Fluctuations Anticipated by Climate Scientists, and Can It Be Managed at All? -- 3.3 To Avoid Natechs, Should Hazardous Industries Shut Down or Upgrade? -- 3.4 Physical and Social Limits to Adaptation -- 3.5 Interim Conclusion -- 3.6 Away with the Illusion of Control (Again) -- 3.7 Letting Go of False Ontologies -- 3.8 Preparing for Controversy -- 3.9 If Research Shifts, Will Practice Too? -- References -- 4 The Experimental Perspective to Address Critical Infrastructure Security Issues in Times of Crisis -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Real-World Experiments, Real-World Laboratories, Collective Experimentation -- 4.2.1 Collective Experimentation -- 4.2.2 Urban Living Labs -- 4.3 Experimentation as an Analytical Lens in Risk and Safety Studies -- 4.4 Experimental Design to Maintain Safety in Transformation-A Next Step -- 4.5 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 5 Safe Transitions in Complex Systems -- 5.1 Transformation of Critical Infrastructure Systems -- 5.2 A Sociological Perspective -- 5.3 Agent-Based Modeling of Complex (Adaptive) Systems -- 5.4 ABM of Socio-technical Systems -- 5.4.1 Agents -- 5.4.2 Context -- 5.4.3 Interaction -- 5.4.4 System Dynamics -- 5.4.5 A Sociological Perspective -- 5.5 Simulation of the Governance of Complex Systems (SimCo) -- 5.6 Experiments.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (100 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783031569951
    Series Statement: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology Series
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cham : Springer International Publishing AG
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Contents -- About the Editors -- 1: Deep-Time Images and the Challenges of Globalization -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Eurocentrism: A Long-Standing Bias in Rock Art Research -- 1.3 Globalization and Rock Art Research -- 1.4 The Pitfalls of Globalization -- 1.5 Organization and Relevance of This Volume -- References Cited -- Part I: Recentering Rock Art -- 2: 'Out of Franco-Cantabria': The Globalization of Pleistocene Rock Art -- 2.1 'Ex occidente lux': Southwestern Europe as the Spiritual Reservoir of Paleolithic Societies -- 2.2 First Discoveries Beyond the 'Cynosure' -- 2.3 Europe Becomes Larger: Systematic Research in Eastern Europe and the British 'Exception' -- 2.4 Beyond Europe -- 2.5 Conclusion: Global Research for a Global Phenomenon? -- References -- 3: Some Implications of Pleistocene Figurative Rock Art in Indonesia and Australia -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Current Rock Art Dating Evidence from Indonesia -- 3.2.1 Sulawesi -- 3.2.2 Kalimantan -- 3.2.3 Figurative Animal Art in Maros-Pangkep -- 3.3 Early Figurative Animal Art in Northern Australia -- 3.3.1 Early NASI-Like Animal Art in Arnhem Land -- 3.3.2 Early NASI-Like Animal Art in the Kimberley -- 3.4 Discussion -- 3.5 Conclusion -- References -- 4: Rock Art, Modes of Existence, and Cosmopolitics: A View from the Southern Andes -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 From Rock Art to Modes of Existence and Cosmopolitics -- 4.2.1 Case 1: El Médano Rock Paintings -- 4.2.2 Case 2: Inka Models -- 4.3 Discussion -- 4.4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 5: Regional Reponses to Global Climate Change: Exploring Anthropomorphic Depictions in Rock and Mobiliary Art Expressions from the Kimberley and Europe During the Late and Terminal Pleistocene -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Art, Regionalisation, Globalization, and Networks -- 5.3 Europe.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (308 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783031546389
    Series Statement: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology Series
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Description / Table of Contents: Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- Introduction -- Societal Transformation: Transformation Research, Transformational Research, Research Transformation: A Novel Framework from RWTH Aachen University -- 1 Introduction: An Understanding of Transformation and Transformation Processes -- 2 RWTH Aachen University: Its History and Strategy -- 2.1 History and Figures -- 2.2 Strategy of an Integrated Interdisciplinary University -- 2.3 Organizational Elements of the RWTH for Addressing Interdisciplinary and Transformation Challenges -- 2.4 Summary: RWTH Aachen University as a Transformational University? -- 3 Aachen Model of Transformation Research -- 3.1 Human-Technology Transformation -- 3.2 Transformation Research -- 3.3 Transformational Research -- 3.4 Research Transformation -- 4 Examples and Book Overview -- 5 Conclusion and Invitation -- References -- An Actor in the Transformation Triad: The Platform Approach "REVIERa" -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Conceptual Background -- 2.1 Understanding Transformation Through Multi-level Thinking -- 2.2 Shaping Transformation as an Open Process -- 3 Platform Approach of RWTH Aachen University -- 3.1 Setting Up the REVIERa Transformation Platform -- 3.2 Contribution to the Transformation Triad -- 4 The Dimensions of the Platform -- 4.1 Transformation Research ("Research") -- 4.2 Transformational Research ("Shape") -- 4.3 Research Transformation ("Enable") -- 5 Discussion and Reflection -- 6 Conclusion and Outlook -- References -- Transformation Research -- Sustainability, the Green Transition, and Greenwashing: An Overview for Research and Practice -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Firms' Sustainability Reporting -- 3 Detection and Measurement of Corporate Greenwashing -- 4 Effects of Corporate Greenwashing -- 5 Determinants and Reasons for Corporate Greenwashing -- 6 Guidelines for Avoiding Greenwashing -- 7 Conclusion.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (473 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783031547003
    Language: English
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