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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: A network of stations for subsoil radon monitoring is in operation at the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky geodynamic testing area and is aimed at detection of strong earthquake precursors. At all stations, measurements are carried out using gas-discharge counters located at different depths within aeration zones of soft sediments. The volume activity of radon (VA Rn) is monitored at the most equipped station Paratunka (PRT) at three measurement sites located across the regional fault. The radon flux density (RFD) is measured from the surface. The article reviews responses in the dynamics of VA Rn and RFD from the surface at the PRT station prior to the Kamchatka earthquakes with magnitudes М W 〉 5 that occurred over the period of 2011–2016. The revealed RFD seasonal cycle is likely related to the seasonal variations in air temperature. The postseismic effect caused by the strongest deep Okhotsk earthquake (May 24, 2013, М W = 8.3) is detected in the RFD data. The behavior of VA Rn dynamics during time periods of the strong earthquakes is different. The results confirm the existing opinion on the formation of narrowly localized zones of Rn runoff to the atmosphere owing to both vertical and horizontal irregularities in the top layer of soil, which can react differently to changes in the geoenvironment stress–strain. On the basis of the real-time radon monitoring data, the authors have issued partially successful short-term prediction for several earthquakes. The results of this work confirm the opinion of many researchers that radon monitoring can be used in the short-term prediction of strong earthquakes.
    Print ISSN: 0747-9239
    Electronic ISSN: 1934-7871
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer on behalf of Allerton Press.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The ground layer response to seismic loading is analyzed in the paper. Two approaches to the site profile behavior are considered: elastic (linear) and viscoelastic (equivalent linear modeling). Four typical soil profiles are taken into account; input peak values are within the range from 0.1 to 0.6g. In all profiles, when ignoring the nonlinear behavior, the calculated impacts are still within the standard response spectrum. When the nonlinearity is taken into account, the pattern is completely different. The standard spectrum is abundantly conservative for high frequencies; meanwhile, it substantially underestimates the level of hazard at low frequencies. Therefore, the shape of standard spectra as a whole does not adequately describe a seismic hazard, especially when the input signal is higher than 0.2 g .
    Print ISSN: 0747-9239
    Electronic ISSN: 1934-7871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The traces of strong earthquakes in the territory of Fennoscandia have been recorded by many scientists already for several decades. The seismogenerating paleostructures, such as postglacial discontinuities in the crystalline basement accompanied by a complex of deformations in the loose deposits are found in the territories of Sweden, Norway, and Finland that border Russia, in which case the spatial correlation of the postglacial faults and modern seismicity is established. Such structures have not yet been discovered in Russia, though the traces of strong earthquakes in the form of rock deformations and postglacial sediments are found by different groups of researchers over the whole territory of Eastern Fennoscandia. The obtained data make it possible to identify the linear zones of concentration of paleoearthquakes (seismic lineaments) that also occur in the modern relief and modern seismicity. However, the problem of postglacial seismicity remains a subject for discussions concerning the localization of the foci, their genesis, and regime. A remaining issue is also distinguishing between seismogenic, cryogenic, and glaciodislocations. The important questions that need to be solved include parametrization of paleoearthquakes and determination of their nature, structures, age, and magnitude. One of the key segments is the area of Vottovaara Mountain in Middle Karelia, which is a part of the Vottovaara–Girvas seismic lineament, where seismic dislocations were found earlier. For studying this probable paleo-focal zone in detail, remote sensing data, field geological and geomorphological observations, and computational methods for estimating the peak values of paleoearthquake mass velocities are used. The typical zones of development of different types of seismic deformations are revealed. A potential seismogenerating fault related to the northwest-striking Vottovaara–Girvas seismic lineament is found; its probable shear kinematics is determined from the ratio of pulse displacements of rock blocks on different wings of the fault. The sequence of a few strong events which occurred here in the interglacial and postglacial periods is identified. The effects of interaction between the seismic activity and the glacial exaration on the formation of the modern image of the focal zone are established. Using alternative approaches to estimating shaking intensity by the macroseismic INQUA scale, the scale by F.F. Aptikayev, and the nomogram by M.V. Rodkin, the intensity of the recent strong Early Holocene seismic event, which occurred here at 8.9 ka according to A.D. Lukashov, is determined. According to the agreed estimates, the intensity reached 9–10 points at a probable magnitude of 7.5–8. This work carried out using a number of new approaches developed by the authors makes it possible to characterize paleoseismicity in more detail.
    Print ISSN: 0747-9239
    Electronic ISSN: 1934-7871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The study of the stress-strain state of a medium in seismically quiet areas is difficult because of the absence of strong events. Under such circumstances, each earthquake, even relatively weak, is of high importance. In this case, all possible information on tectonic stresses and their dynamics, e.g., information on time, location, and magnitude of aftershocks, should be obtained from available seismic data. The earthquake near the town of Mariupol which occurred on August 7, 2016, had a body wave magnitude of 4.5–4.9 from the data of the different seismological centers. We detected 12 aftershocks that occurred within 5 days after the main shock using two seismic arrays (AKASG and BRTR) and one three-component station (KBZ) of the International Monitoring System, as well as two array stations of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences. For six aftershocks, signals were found at three or more stations. The other aftershocks were detected from the data at two out of three nearest stations. Signal detection and association with aftershocks of the main shock, as well as estimation of magnitude and relative location of the found aftershocks, were carried out using the method of waveform cross-correlation (WFCC). The signals from the main shock that acted as the only master event (ME) for the WFCC method were used as waveform templates. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to determine the exact onset time of regular seismic waves from aftershocks, we used waveform templates of different length, from 10 to 180 s depending on the wave type and distance to the station, as well as band filtering in narrow frequency bands. The highest sensitivity of the detector and accuracy of the P-wave onset time estimates were reached when a waveform template included all regular waves from P to L g . Association of signals with aftershocks was based on back projection of signal arrival times to origin times using the travel time from a master event to the station, which was measured with a very low error, being equal to almost half of the digitization step length. To develop a seismic event hypothesis, the origin times at two or more stations should be spaced within a 2-s interval.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1934-7871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The ultimate strain value for rocks in aggregate with their other physicomechanical characteristics plays a substantial role when solving different problems related to the bearing capacity and behavior of soils. These include determination of the maximum displacement, velocity, and acceleration values of soils during earthquakes and estimation of the potential strain energy accumulated in a medium during strong earthquake preparation. The latter parameter is also key in predicting earthquakes from the ultimate strain of rocks. The paper describes a technique developed by the author for determining the ultimate strain of soil columns under natural conditions from their relative slope on the surface after a strong earthquake. The empirical dependences of the ultimate strain of rocks on earthquake magnitude, relative slip, rupture length, and the seismic moment are obtained by analyzing their values calculated by the proposed method for 44 strong earthquakes with magnitudes of 5.6–8.5. A comparative analysis of the ultimate strain values obtained by other researchers by geodesic triangulation is performed.
    Print ISSN: 0747-9239
    Electronic ISSN: 1934-7871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The characteristics of seismicity in the near vicinity of five large water reservoirs and three large waterfalls from different regions of the Earth are considered. It is found that in some cases induced seismicity manifests itself during the filling of reservoirs at quite large depths: in the lower crust and even in the upper mantle. There is negative correlation between the maximum magnitudes Мmax of the earthquakes recorded near water reservoirs and waterfalls and the water discharge in these objects ( V p ). The largest values of М max are characteristic of earthquakes that occurred near Sarez Lake (Tajikistan) and the Koyna Reservoir (India), which have the lowest V p ; in contrast, the smallest magnitudes are reported for earthquakes in the areas of the Khone Falls (Laos) and Niagara Falls (United States, Canada), where there are no large artificial water reservoirs, but huge water discharge takes place. The available data indicate that permanent vibration caused by falling water reduces the level of seismicity.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1934-7871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The objective of the present study is to design a basic software and hardware complex (SHC) of a seismometric monitoring system for buildings and structures recommended for serial production. To do this, the authors used modern methods and principles of designing software and hardware systems. The system is methodologically based on the engineering-seismometric method. This method uses recording of spatial vibrations of an object as a result of microseisms of natural and anthropogenic origin. Next, dynamic and elastic characteristics of the structure are determined by vibrations that make it possible to evaluate its technical condition. As a result of conducted studies, the authors defined the main technical and functional requirements for the monitoring system for a wide range of applications. A three-level structure of a modular technical condition monitoring system is proposed for discussion. This structure makes it possible to create an extensible open system in which the number of measuring channels can be easily increased by increasing the number of plugin standard modules. In addition, the system can both record seismic events, earthquakes, and perform seismometric monitoring by microseisms. In order to represent the main processes and structure of the proposed basic complex of the system in the case of its full operation, the authors developed a functional model of the system. The model is based on a data flow diagram that describes the processes of collecting, processing, storing, analyzing, and presenting seismometric monitoring data. The functioning of the proposed complex is briefly described. The input data of the complex are the vibrations of the structure recorded at observation points using three-component geophones. Then, the seismic signal recorder collects, amplifies, digitizes, and transmits data to the server. The server either records seismic events and then evaluates their impact on the structure or carries out a planned recording of microseisms in order to monitor the technical condition of the structure and stores vibration data in the corresponding files. If an earthquake is detected, the system notifies the responsible personnel. Records of microseisms are used by the data processing software to compute the statistical parameters of vibrations and complex transfer functions according to the spectra of which the operator manually selects the values of natural frequencies. Seismic monitoring data processing software evaluates elastic characteristics by a number of natural frequencies using a mathematical design model of the structure vibrations. On the basis of the analysis of the change in the obtained dynamic and elastic characteristics and taking into account the effect of external factors, the software generates information for monitoring the technical condition of the structure. These results, as well as data of the evaluation of the event impact on the structure, are the output data of the system.
    Print ISSN: 0747-9239
    Electronic ISSN: 1934-7871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The paper addresses the collection and analysis of new data on aftershocks that occurred within 20 days of the main shock of the December 7, 1988, Spitak earthquake, Mw = 6.8. The data were used to improve the location of aftershock hypocenters and magnitudes. Available data concerning this 20-day period were the least reliable in terms of completeness, representativeness, and the accuracy of hypocenter location and, in particular, estimation of energy classes and magnitudes. New data were retrieved from the records and bulletins of the seismic stations of the regional and global networks. Hypocenter parameters were determined by means of the minimization of wave travel-time residuals and subsequent double-difference hypocenter relocation. Digital records of the Obninsk and Arti seismic stations (Δ = 15°–18°) and five more distant stations (Δ = 34°–53°) were used to more accurately estimate the surface-wave magnitude of the main shock and strongest aftershock. The aftershock catalog of the Spitak earthquake was substantially revised. First, the previous hypocenter locations (Aref’ev et al., 1991) were improved using the double-difference method; second, new data were retrieved from the bulletins of Caucasian seismic stations. The minimum magnitude of completeness ( M c = 1.9) of the new catalog for the first 20 days after the main shock (when there were no epicentral observations) is the same as that for the period from December 7, 1988, to December 31, 1989. The new catalog contains information on 2090 aftershocks with magnitude M = 1.9 and more for the period from December 7, 1988, to December 31, 1989. The double-difference method allowed the location of the epicenters of clustered earthquakes to be reliably estimated with a longitude error of no more than 4.6 km, a latitude error of 4 km, and a depth error of 5 km. The new spatial distribution of the aftershock hypocenters is better correlated with the tectonic setting than the old data. The new catalog can be used to assess seismic hazard after strong earthquakes in the region.
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    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The results of studies of the shear wave attenuation field in source zones of the 2003 Chuya, 1970 Ureg-Nur, 1991 Busingol, 2011 Sayan, and 2011–2012 Tuva earthquakes are presented. Attenuation fields in these source zones include blocks with a high Q-factor and linear weakened zones. The surface ruptures from the mainshocks of the 2003 Chuya and 2011–2012 Tuva earthquakes are located in the zones of strong attenuation. Epicenters of the mainshocks are located where the maximum contrast in attenuation is observed. In the source zones of large earthquakes in the Altai–Sayan region or near them, the zones similar to so-called seimogenic bodies described in the literature are found. These objects tend to linear zones with high attenuation and are characterized by an increased density of deepened earthquakes and also by deformations of near-vertical elongation. The obtained data suggest that the fluid factor could play certain role in the occurrence of large earthquakes in the Altai–Sayan region.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1934-7871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The data on the earthquakes of April 13 and 25, 1914 in Altai from ( Novyi katalog …, 1977) have been summarized. Based on an analysis of the earlier publications and the new data from the initial sources, it has been shown that the only seismic event occurred on April 25 (12 old style), 1914. The weak differentiation of macroseismic effects over the area does not allow us to reliably locate the epicenter; the best spatial accuracy is ±50 km. Based on the entire data volume, the magnitude is estimated at 5.5 ± 0.3 which is slightly higher than was believed earlier.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1934-7871
    Topics: Geosciences
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