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  • Articles  (1,302)
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  • Articles  (1,302)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Objective The purpose of the study was to examine differences in kidney intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) parameters in early-stage diabetic patients versus healthy controls. Materials and methods Nineteen type 2 diabetic patients (group A) with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) 〈 30 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 80–120 mL/(min 1.73 m 2 ) and twelve healthy volunteers (group B) were recruited. Kidneys were scanned with 1.5-Tesla IVIM-DWI. Nine b values (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 800 s/mm 2 ) were used. The parameters derived from IVIM-DWI were calculated for each kidney by two radiologists and included the perfusion fraction ( f ), diffusion coefficient ( D ), and pseudo-diffusion coefficient ( D *). The mean values of f , D , and D * were calculated by selecting multiple regions of interest in the kidney. The diagnostic performance of the f , D , and D * values for the diagnosis of early diabetic kidney changes was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Three radiologists independently measured the parameters derived from IVIM-DWI in the two groups by free-hand placing regions of interest, and the interclass coefficients (ICCs) were analyzed by SPSS.16.0 software. Results The f values of the kidneys were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. The D value of the kidneys was significantly lower in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. No significant differences in the D * values of the kidneys were observed between diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. The D values of the right kidneys were significantly higher than those of the left kidneys in both groups. The results of the receiver operating characteristic analysis were as follows: left kidney— f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 27.49%) and D value AUC = 0.752 (cutoff point ≤ 1.68 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s); and right kidney— f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 28.24%) and D value AUC = 0.752 (cutoff point ≤ 1.81 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s). The diagnostic performance of the D * value was very low (AUC 〈 0.6). No significant differences were present between the areas under the curves of the f and D values ( P  〉 0.05). The ICCs of the f value and D value were between 0.637 and 0.827. The ICC of the D * value was less than 0.3. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that changes in kidneys detected by IVIM-DWI may serve as indicators of early diabetic kidney disease.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Purpose To evaluate whether the addition of gadolinium-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) improves T2 sequence performance for the diagnosis of local recurrence (LR) from rectal cancer and to assess which approach is better at formulating this diagnosis among readers with different experience. Methods Forty-three patients with suspected LR underwent pelvic MRI with T2 weighted (T2) sequences, gadolinium fat-suppressed T1 weighted sequences (post-contrast T1), and DWI sequences. Three readers (expert: G, intermediate: E, resident: V) scored the likelihood of LR on T2, T2 + post-contrast T1, T2 + DWI, and T2 + post-contrast T1 + DWI. Results In total, 18/43 patients had LR; on T2 images, the expert reader achieved an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.916, sensitivity of 88.9%, and specificity of 76%; the intermediate reader achieved values of 0.890, 88.9%, and 48%, respectively, and the resident achieved values of 0.852, 88.9%, and 48%, respectively. DWI significantly improved the AUC value for the expert radiologist by up to 0.999 ( p  = 0.04), while post-contrast T1 significantly improved the AUC for the resident by up to 0.950 ( p  = 0.04). For the intermediate reader, both the T2 + DWI AUC and T2 + post-contrast T1 AUC were better than the T2 AUC (0.976 and 0.980, respectively), but with no statistically significant difference. No statistically significant difference was achieved by any of the three readers by comparing either the T2 + DWI AUCs to the T2 + post-contrast T1 AUCs or the AUCs of the two pairs of sequences to those of the combined three sequences. Furthermore, using the T2 sequences alone, all of the readers achieved a fair number of “equivocal” cases: they decreased with the addition of either DWI or post-contrast T1 sequences and, for the two less experienced readers, they decreased even more with the three combined sequences. Conclusions Both DWI and T1 post-contrast MRI increased diagnostic performance for LR diagnosis compared to T2; however, no significant difference was observed by comparing the two different pairs of sequences with the three combined sequences.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Global endometrial ablation is a commonly performed, minimally invasive technique aimed at improving/resolving abnormal uterine bleeding and menorrhagia in women. As non-resectoscopic techniques have come into existence, endometrial ablation performance continues to increase due to accessibility and decreased requirements for operating room time and advanced technical training. The increased utilization of this method translates into increased imaging of patients who have undergone the procedure. An understanding of the expected imaging appearances of endometrial ablation using different modalities is important for the abdominal radiologist. In addition, the frequent usage of the technique naturally comes with complications requiring appropriate imaging work-up. We review the expected appearance of the post-endometrial ablated uterus on multiple imaging modalities and demonstrate the more common and rare complications seen in the immediate post-procedural time period and remotely.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Purpose To study the impact of keV levels of virtual monoenergetic images generated from rapid kVp-switching dual-energy CT (rsDECT) on CT texture analysis (CTTA). Methods This study included 30 consecutive patients (59.3 ± 12 years; range 34–77 years; 17M:13F) who underwent portal venous phase abdominal CT on a rsDECT scanner. Axial 5-mm monoenergetic images at 5 energy levels (40/50/60/70/80 keV) were created and CTTA of liver was performed. CTTA comprised a filtration-histogram technique with different spatial scale filter (SSF) values (0–6). CTTA quantification at each SSF value included histogram-based statistical parameters such as mean intensity, standard deviation (SD), entropy, mean of positive pixels (MPP), skewness, and kurtosis. The values were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Results Among the different CTTA metrics, mean intensity (at SSF 〉 0), skewness, and kurtosis did not show variability whereas entropy, MPP, and SD varied with different keV levels. There was no change in skewness and kurtosis values for all 6 filters ( p  〉 0.05). Mean intensity showed no change for filters 2–6 ( p  〉 0.05). Mean intensity at SSF = 0 i.e., mean attenuations were 91.2 ± 2.9, 108.7 ± 3.6, 136.1 ± 4.7, 179.8 ± 6.9, and 250.5 ± 10.1 HU for 80, 70, 60, 50, and 40 keV images, respectively demonstrating significant variability (decrease) with increasing keV levels ( p  〈 0.001). Entropy, MPP, and SD values showed a statistically significant decrease with increasing keV of monoenergetic images on all 6 filters ( p  〈 0.001). Conclusion The energy levels of monoenergetic images have variable impact on the different CTTA parameters, with no significant change in skewness, kurtosis, and filtered mean intensity whereas significant decrease in mean attenuation, entropy, MPP, and SD values with increasing energy levels.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 5
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 6
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Purpose To determine whether the type of VHL gene pathogenic variant influences the growth rate or CT enhancement values of renal lesions in VHL patients. Materials and methods Thirty-two VHL patients (19 male) were selected from a prospectively maintained imaging database for patients that underwent surgical tumor resection between 2014 and 2016. One hundred and eleven VHL lesions were marked for resection and pathology analysis. Whole lesion volumetric segmentation was performed on nephrographic phase of the two most recent contrast-enhanced CT scans before surgery. Intensity distribution curves were obtained from segmentations. A linear mixed model, accounting for within-patient correlations, was used to compare the growth and enhancement differences between different germline pathogenic variant types. Results There was no significant difference for the lesions’ total growth between different germline pathogenic variants ( P value = 0.78). The median growth rate for all lesions was 1.7 cc/year (IQR 0.5, 3.9) with a baseline median size of 4.1 cm 3 (IQR 1.7, 11.7). In complex lesions, the solid portion of the tumor demonstrated a higher growth rate (1.6 cc/year) than cystic portions (0.02 cc/year) which stayed relatively unchanged. Only one pathogenic variant (Splice donor) showed some levels of difference in its relative enhancement from other subtypes. Conclusion The type of germline pathogenic variant on the VHL gene does not affect the growth rate or CT enhancement values of renal lesions in patients with VHL. The absolute growth rate of these tumors may be used in the scheduling of follow-up studies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: The skin and subcutaneous tissues are inevitably imaged as part of most body MRI studies. Incidental or even symptomatic skin lesions may, therefore, be detected and present a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. We aim to provide a comprehensive review, with illustrative examples, of the skin abnormalities encountered on body MRI studies in our busy academic radiology department.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM DWI) parameters in identifying early renal function changes in diabetics. Methods A total of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 20 healthy control subjects underwent multiple b value DWI. The diabetic patients were stratified into two groups based on albuminuria category: NAU (normal to mildly increased albuminuria; ACR 〈 30 mg/g) and MAU (moderately increased albuminuria; 30 ≤ ACR 〈 300 mg/g). The mean cortical and medullary IVIM parameters ( D , D *, f , and ADC) were calculated and compared among the different groups, and the correlation of ACR and eGFR was also calculated. Results The present study revealed the limited water molecule diffusion and hyperperfusion of renal cortex and medulla in diabetic patients before proteinuria detection. Mean cortical and medullary D values negatively correlated with the ACR values in diabetics with 30 ≤ ACR 〈 300 mg/g, whereas no correlation was found between ACR values and other IVIM parameters. Conclusion IVIM DWI might be helpful in noninvasively identifying early-stage DN. The IVIM parametric values are more sensitive than the ACR in detecting early-stage kidney changes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Objective The aim of the study was to analyze MR imaging features of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML). Methods This study included 17 patients with histopathologically confirmed renal EAML who underwent renal MRI scanning before radical or partial nephrectomy. MR images were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with pathological findings. Result Fifteen lesions (88.2%) appeared as round or oval. The tumor-kidney interface was round in 14 lesions (82.4%). Fifteen tumors (88.2%) presented mainly isointensity on T1WI, and eleven tumors (64.7%) presented mainly hypointensity on T2WI. Twelve lesions (70.6%) showed restricted diffusion on DWI, and the mean ADC value was 1.23 ± 0.28 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s. Minimal fat component was identified as loss of signal intensity on opposed-phase MR images in 6 cases (35.3%). Sixteen lesions (100%) demonstrated inhomogeneous enhancement, and 7 of 16 masses (43.8%) showed reticular enhancement. Rapid wash-in and wash-out enhancement was seen in 13 masses (81.3%). In the corticomedullary phase, the mass showed markedly enhancement in 14 cases (87.5%). The irregular vessels and hemorrhage were detected in 4 cases (23.5%) and 7 cases (41.2%), respectively. One patient (5.9%) had a lymph node involvement at initial diagnosis, and showed distant metastasis after operation. In the immunohistochemical analysis, 15 tumors (88.2%) were positive for melanocytic marker (HMB45 or Melan-A), and all cases (100%) were negative for epithelial-associated markers (CK or AE1/AE3). Conclusion The presence of hypointensity on T2WI, restricted diffusion on DWI, round tumor-kidney interface, reticular, and marked enhancement (rapid wash-in and wash-out) should further raise suspicion for renal EAML. The diagnosis may be confirmed by pathological analysis.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Springer
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