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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description:    The sedimentology, microfacies, and stratigraphic age (from planktonic and benthic foraminifera and strontium-isotope stratigraphy) of a 300-m-thick Upper Cretaceous carbonate succession from the Island of Čiovo (central Dalmatia, Croatia) were analyzed in order to determine the lithostratigraphic, depositional, and chronostratigraphic framework. The Cretaceous strata were deposited in the southern part of the long-lasting (Late Triassic to Paleogene) Adriatic-Dinaridic Carbonate Platform (ADCP), one of a few late Mesozoic, intra-Tethyan, peri-Adriatic (sub)tropical archipelagos. The succession is separated by a firmground formational boundary into two lithostratigraphic units: the underlying Middle to Upper Campanian Dol Formation consisting of slope pelagic limestone with intercalated turbidites and debrites, and the overlying Upper Campanian Čiovo Formation composed of outer-ramp bioclastic-lithoclastic and echinoderm-dominated packstone. Age, lithology, and depositional settings of the Čiovo Formation are different from other penecontemporaneous, regionally important inner-platform carbonate successions within the ADCP domain. Therefore, the Čiovo Formation is proposed here as a new lithostratigraphic unit. Regionally important condensed intervals in the form of at least two firmground surfaces, characterized by Thalassinoides burrows (with phosphatic mineralization) that belong to the Glossifungites ichnofacies, occur in the lowermost part of the Čiovo Formation. Abrupt shallowing of depositional environments at the boundary between the Dol and the Čiovo Formation, and the generation of the formational boundary firmground, likely correlate with the regionally recorded Upper Campanian Event that represents a global eustatic sea-level fall. A regionally important subaerial exposure surface with nodular calcrete, rhizoliths, and Microcodium aggregates in the upper part of the Čiovo Formation represents a regional subaerial unconformity that was recorded across the ADCP domain and was interpreted as a consequence of diachronous and differential uplift of various parts of the platform in response to the formation of a forebulge in front of the approaching Dinaridic orogen. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-23 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0342-0 Authors M. Brlek, Department of Geology, Croatian Geological Survey, Sachsova 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia T. Korbar, Department of Geology, Croatian Geological Survey, Sachsova 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia B. Cvetko Tešović, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102a, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia B. Glumac, Department of Geosciences, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063, USA L. Fuček, Department of Geology, Croatian Geological Survey, Sachsova 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
    Print ISSN: 0172-9179
    Electronic ISSN: 1612-4820
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-11-08
    Description:    During the Early Miocene, coincident with the Sardinia–Corsica block rotation, mixed carbonate–siliciclastic sediments of the Cala di Labra Formation were deposited on the southern margin of the Bonifacio Basin (southeastern Corsica, France). The Burdigalian marine transgression is spectacularly represented by a peculiar coral bioconstruction, unconformably lying on the eroded Variscan granitic basement. Superb exposures allowed detailed, three-dimensional field mapping, lithofacies analysis, and characterization of the Cala di Labra coral bioconstruction. As a result of the extremely irregular and articulated substrate, the coral buildup appears as an organized lens-shaped structure, and its core is constituted by a relatively dense coral domestone with a moderate increase of platy corals in the upper part. A coral rubble associated with granitic cobbles and pebbles is locally present at the base. The inter-coral sediment consists of poorly sorted bioclastic wackestone to packstone. Results from this study clearly show evidence for the occurrence of a former submerged granitic substrate that, as very rarely documented in the geological record, is here interpreted as the subtidal substrate for growth of a small bioconstruction under relatively high energy and clear water conditions. The Cala di Labra bioconstruction is overlain by a fining-upward quartzose conglomerate and sandstone succession interpreted as deposited in a coastal setting near fluvial point sources. The demise of coral growth was caused by a regressive event and by the consequent quite-sudden burial and related changes of trophic conditions. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-14 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0341-1 Authors Laura Tomassetti, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, La Sapienza Università di Roma, P. Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy Francesca R. Bosellini, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Largo S. Eufemia 19, 41121 Modena, Italy Marco Brandano, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, La Sapienza Università di Roma, P. Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
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    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-11-08
    Description:    The Upper Cenomanian–Lower Turonian litho-stratigraphic units of the Danubian Cretaceous Group of the proximal Bodenwöhrer Senke (Regensburg, Eibrunn and Winzerberg formations, the latter consisting of a lower Reinhausen Member and an upper Knollensand Member), have been investigated with a focus on facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy. Analyses of litho-, bio-, and microfacies resulted in the recognition of 12 predominantly marine facies types for the Eibrunn and Winzerberg formations. Petrographic and paleontological properties as well as gradual transitions in the sections suggest that their depositional environment was a texturally graded, predominantly siliciclastic, storm-dominated shelf. The muddy–siliceous facies types FT 1–3 have been deposited below the storm wave-base in an outer shelf setting. Mid-shelf deposits are represented by fine- to medium-grained, bioturbated, partly glauconitic sandstones (FT 4–6). Coarse-grained, gravelly and/or shell-bearing sandstones (FT 7–10) developed in the inner shelf zone. Highly immature, arkosic coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates (FT 11 and 12) characterize an incised, high-gradient braided river system. The Winzerberg Formation with its general coarsening- and thickening-upward trend reflects a regressive cycle culminating in a subaerial unconformity associated with a coarse-grained, gravelly unit of marine to fluvial origin known as the “Hornsand” which is demonstrably diachronous. The overlying Altenkreith Member of the Roding Formation signifies the onset of a new transgressive cycle in the early Middle Turonian. The sequence stratigraphic analysis suggests that the deposition of the Upper Cenomanian and Lower Turonian strata of the Bodenwöhrer Senke took place in a single cycle of third-order eustatic sea-level change between the major sequence boundaries SB Ce 5 (mid-Late Cenomanian) and SB Tu 1 (Early–Middle Turonian boundary interval). The southeastern part of the Bodenwöhrer Senke was flooded in the mid-Late Cenomanian ( Praeactinocamax plenus transgression) and a second transgressive event occurred in the earliest Turonian. In the central and northwestern parts of the Bodenwöhrer Senke, however, the initial transgression occurred during the earliest Turonian, related to pre-transgression topography. Thus, the Regensburg and Eibrunn formations are increasingly condensed here and cannot be separated anymore. Following an earliest Turonian maximum flooding, the Lower Turonian Winzerberg Formation filled the available accommodation space, explaining its constant thickness of 35–40 m across the Bodenwöhrer Senke and excluding tectonic activity during this interval. Rapid sea-level fall at SB Tu 1 terminated this depositional sequence. This study shows that Late Cenomanian–Early Turonian deposition in the Bodenwöhrer Senke was governed by eustatic sea-level changes. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-25 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0337-x Authors Nadine Richardt, Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Mineralogie und Geologie, Sektion Paläozoologie, Königsbrücker Landstr. 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany Markus Wilmsen, Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Mineralogie und Geologie, Sektion Paläozoologie, Königsbrücker Landstr. 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany Birgit Niebuhr, Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Abt. 10 Geologischer Dienst, Leopoldstr. 30, 95615 Marktredwitz, Germany Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
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    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-11-08
    Description:    Recent studies on the Lower Cretaceous deposits located in various areas of the Romanian Carpathians resulted in the identification of several specimens of dasycladalean algae assigned to the genus Triploporella including Triploporella carpatica Bucur, Triploporella cf. praturlonii Barattolo, Triploporella cf. steinmannii Barattolo, Triploporella sp. 1, Triploporella sp. 2, and Triploporella n. sp. This paper provides arguments on their taxonomic assignment, together with discussions on the Triploporella species described in the literature and their paleobiogeographic significance. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-14 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0334-0 Authors Ioan I. Bucur, Department of Geology, Babeş-Bolyai University, str. M. Kogălniceanu nr. 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania Călin Bruchental, Department of Geology, Babeş-Bolyai University, str. M. Kogălniceanu nr. 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania Ioan Cociuba, Geological Institute of Romania, Cluj-Napoca Branch, 54 Plopilor Street, 400379 Cluj-Napoca, Romania Bruno Granier, Département des Sciences de la Terre et de l’Univers, UFR des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO), 6 avenue Le Gorgeu—CS 93837, 29238 Brest Cedex 3, France Anca-Mariana Hebriştean, Department of Geology, Babeş-Bolyai University, str. M. Kogălniceanu nr. 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania Daniel-Florin Lazar, Department of Geology, Babeş-Bolyai University, str. M. Kogălniceanu nr. 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania Alexandru Vlad Marian, Department of Geology, Babeş-Bolyai University, str. M. Kogălniceanu nr. 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania Emanoil Săsăran, Department of Geology, Babeş-Bolyai University, str. M. Kogălniceanu nr. 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-11-08
    Description:    Abundant calcispheres occur in Upper Carnian and Norian hemipelagic limestone successions of the Southern Apennines and Sicily. They exhibit a variety of morphologies that were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The most common morphology is that of a full solid sphere of radiaxial calcite crystals, 20–22 μm in diameter on average, with or without a minor hollow in the center. Smaller forms may be clusters of sub-micron crystals, only rarely disposed as to form a spherical test with a diameter of 10 μm or less. Larger forms are similar to small forms (clusters or spheres of sub-micron crystals) with an epitaxial calcite overgrowth. The taxonomic attribution of these calcispheres is uncertain, mostly because of their poor preservation, but a comparison is possible with some Mesozoic calcispheres attributed to calcareous dinocysts. The amount of epitaxial overgrowth is variable, but in most cases much larger than the original sphere. This prevents a significant evaluation of the contribution of calcispheres to carbonate pelagic sedimentation by point counting in thin-section. However, it can be shown that calcispheres become abundant only after a major climatic perturbation dated at the end of the Early Carnian, known as the Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE). This event involved a strong and prolonged enhancement of the hydrological cycle, with consequent supply of excess hydrogen carbonate to the oceans and increased seawater alkalinity. Although calcispheres of this type are known at least from the Middle Triassic, it is only shortly after the CPE that they become abundant, and the first common occurrence of calcareous nannoplankton in the western Tethys is thus Late Carnian in age. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-24 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0338-9 Authors Nereo Preto, Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via Gradenigo, 6, 35131 Padua, Italy Helmut Willems, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany Chiara Guaiumi, Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via Gradenigo, 6, 35131 Padua, Italy Hildegard Westphal, Leibniz Center for Marine Tropical Ecology, Bremen, Germany Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-11-08
    Description:    Concretions, with abundant calcite-dolomite cement-replacement textures originally hosted in shallow-marine sandstones, were reworked into Lower Cretaceous fluvio-deltaic conglomerates and shoreface sandstones (External Zones, Betic Cordillera). A cycle of host sand deposition, early diagenetic concretion formation and concretion reworking is documented: (1) Well-sorted shoreface sandstone deposited. (2) Spherical to ovoid, non-ferroan calcite-cemented concretions formed below flooding surfaces at shallow-burial depths during early eodiagenesis. Non-ferroan calcite cements were precipitated from the bicarbonate derived from seawater and from dissolution of marine bioclasts, as shown by isotope analyses. (3) Concretions were reworked and exposed on the seafloor in a high-energy setting as indicated by the presence of numerous bivalve borings ( Entobia ichnofacies), laminated micritic microbial crusts around the concretions, and epilithobionts (oysters, barnacles and corals) on the concretion surface. Concretions also appear as erosional remnants on the floor of channels which were incised into the shoreline sandstone when sea-level fell. (4) The fluvio–deltaic channels were filled with sediment during flooding in the late lowstand of sea-level. (5) The concretions are partly dolomitized, and the presence of siderite, pyrite and barite in the outer part of the concretions precipitated before the dolomite, suggests that the latter formed during shallow burial. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-19 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0335-z Authors F. García-García, Dpt. de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, Campus Universitario, 23071 Jaén, Spain R. Marfil, Dpt. de Petrología y Geoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain G. A. De Gea, Dpt. de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, Campus Universitario, 23071 Jaén, Spain A. Delgado, Laboratorio de Isótopos estables, Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain A. Kobstädt, Dpt. de Petrología y Geoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain A. Santos, Dpt. de Geodinámica y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva, Spain E. Mayoral, Dpt. de Geodinámica y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva, Spain Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-11-08
    Description:    Cretaceous lyssacinosid sponges (Hexactinellida) are rare and poorly recognized. This is the first description of lyssacinosid sponges from the Cretaceous of Poland. The sponges (including six species and three types of root tufts) come from the Upper Turonian–Lower Coniacian of the Opole Trough, Upper Campanian of the Miechów synclinorium, and Upper Campanian of the SE part of the border synclinorium. All localities lie southwards of the previous reports, widening thus the paleogeographic distribution of the group within the North European Province. Cretaceous lyssacinosids seem to be a useful tool in paleoecological interpretations. The presence of thin-walled lyssacinosids with root tufts indicates a soft substrate, slow rate of sedimentation, and calm and deeper water conditions. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-15 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0340-2 Authors Ewa Świerczewska-Gładysz, Institute of Earth Science, University of Lodz, Narutowicza 88 St, 90–139 Lodz, Poland Agata Jurkowska, Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Oleandry 2a St, 30–063 Krakow, Poland Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-11-08
    Description:    Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian-Tithonian?) strata of NE Iran (Lar Formation) are composed of medium- to thick-bedded, mostly grainy limestones with various skeletal (bivalves, foraminifera, algae, corals, echinoderms, brachiopods, and radiolaria) and nonskeletal (peloids, ooids, intraclasts, and oncoids) components. Facies analysis documents low- to high-energy environments, including tidal-flat, lagoonal, barrier, and open-marine facies. Because of the wide lateral distribution of facies and the apparent absence of distinct paleobathymetric changes, the depositional system likely represents a westward-deepening homoclinal ramp. Four third-order depositional sequences can be distinguished in each of five stratigraphic measured sections. Transgressive system tracts (TST) show deepening-upward trends, in which shallow-water (tidal flat and lagoonal) facies are overlain by deeper-water (barrier and open-marine) facies. Highstand systems tracts (HST) show shallowing-upward trends in which deep-water facies are overlain by shallow-water facies. All sequence boundaries in the study area (except at the top of the stratigraphic column) are of the nonerosional (SB2) type. Correlation of depositional sequences in the studied sections show that relatively shallow marine (tidal-flat, lagoonal, barrier, and shallow open-marine) conditions dominated in the area. These alternated with deep-water open-marine wackestone and mudstones representing zones of maximum flooding (MFZ). Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-27 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0339-8 Authors A. Aghaei, Department of Geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran A. Mahboubi, Department of Geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran R. Moussavi-Harami, Department of Geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran C. Heubeck, Department of Geological Sciences, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany M. Nadjafi, Department of Geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-10-25
    Description:    The encrusting microorganism Lithocodium (type species: Lithocodium aggregatum Elliott), widespread in Late Triassic–Middle Cretaceous shallow-marine carbonates of the Tethys realm, was interpreted in the past as a codiacean green alga, a lituolid foraminifer, calcimicrobial colonies, ulotrichalean green algae, or chambers of boring sponges. A re-study of the type material of L. aggregatum (in the sense of Elliott), stored in the British Museum (Natural History), revealed that this “species” has to be regarded as a calcimicrobial crust, infested by boring sponges (ichnotaxon Entobia ). Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-9 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0336-y Authors Antonietta Cherchi, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università di Cagliari, Via Trentino, 51, 09127 Cagliari, Italy Rolf Schroeder, Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Senckenberg Anlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt a. M., Germany Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-10-22
    Description:    The Late Cenomanian Hummar Formation was studied in three sections in north and central Jordan, at Aameriyya, northeast of Na’ur and the Wadi Haur areas. The base in the Aameriyya area is marked by a subaerial unconformity overlain by a calcrete and a paleokarstic horizon, separating the underlying Fuheis Formation marl from the overlying Hummar Formation limestone. The emergent Aameriyya area is interpreted to have been a paleohigh, as a response to tectonism, and a basin and swell topography is invoked for the Late Cenomanian carbonate platform in this region. The Hummar Formation is believed to form one complete depositional sequence; the calcrete-karst represents a lowstand systems tract, the overlying 2-m massive rudstone/floatstone represents the transgressive systems tracts (TST), and the cortoid grainstone/packstone with clinoforms the highstand systems tracts. The topmost miliolid limestone is probably the late highstand topset of the sequence, followed upwards by the TST of the Shueib Formation marl of the next sequence. The sequence boundary at the upper contact of the Hummar Formation can be correlated regionally whereas the sequence boundary at its base with subaerial exposure has not been reported elsewhere in Jordan, the Negev, or Sinai. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Article Pages 1-14 DOI 10.1007/s10347-012-0333-1 Authors Abdulkader M. Abed, Department of Geology, University of Jordan, Amman, 11942 Jordan Abdalla Abu Hamad, Department of Geology, University of Jordan, Amman, 11942 Jordan Hani Abul Khair, Department of Geology, University of Jordan, Amman, 11942 Jordan Ghazi Kraishan, Schlumberger Overseas, Data Consulting and Services, PO Box 8467, Doha, Qatar Journal Facies Online ISSN 1612-4820 Print ISSN 0172-9179
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