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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Muhammad Imtiaz, Zhixin Chen, Chengling Zhu, Hui Pan, Imran Zada, Yao Li, Syeda Wishal Bokhari, RuiYing Luan, Salma Nigar, Shenmin Zhu Sugarcane bagasse, a waste product of the sugarcane industry can be used as a precursor for the preparation of carbon. In this study, a composite consisting of hierarchically functionalized porous carbon (FPC) and β-FeOOH was synthesized via a simple and effective hydrolysis method. The hydrothermal process before the carbonization and activation of the bagasse maintained the hierarchical interconnected porous structure of the sugarcane bagasse. A nitric acid (HNO 3 ) functionalization treatment enabled an in-situ growth of β-FeOOH on the hierarchically structured bagasse. When tested as an anode for lithium-ion batteries, the obtained FPC/β-FeOOH composite showed a high discharge capacity of 898.8 mAh g −1 at 0.2 A g −1 after 350 cycles and achieved a specific capacity of 446.1 mAh g −1 at a current rate of 1 A g −1 after 1000 cycles together with a remarkable coulombic efficiency of 99.9%. This excellent electrochemical performance of the FPC/β-FeOOH composite can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the interconnected porous structure of porous carbon and the electrochemically active tunnel type β-FeOOH nanorods. The strategy developed here is promising in design and fabrication of other composites having interconnected porous structures with high performance. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0013-4686
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Jia-hua Liu, Xiao-ying Xu, Weibang Lu, Xinbo Xiong, Xing Ouyang, Changhui Zhao, Fei Wang, Si-yin Qin, Jiao-ling Hong, Jiao-ning Tang, Da-Zhu Chen A new type of ternary carbon nanotube fiber (CNF)/three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polyaniline (PANI) electrodes with a double core-sheathed architecture composed of CNF/CNTs and CNTs/PANI was fabricated via low-potential electrophoretic deposition of CNTs and subsequent electrochemical polymerization of PANI on the CNF surface. The resulting all-solid-state supercapacitor possesses a high specific capacitance of 67.31 mF cm −2 at the current density of 0.5 mA cm −2 and only a loss as less as 10% of its initial specific capacitance after 5000 charge-discharge cycles. Furthermore, it is capable of withstanding different bending deformations, and can maintain 99.8% capacitance, even after experiencing the bending of 180° for 500 times, which manifests a significant application potential in the field of flexible electronic devices. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0013-4686
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Amol Bhairuba Ikhe, Nirmalesh Naveen, Kee-Sun Sohn, Myoungho Pyo Poly(hexyl viologen dichloride) (PHV-Cl) is described as a high energy density (ED) material in magnesium-based electrolytes. When coupled with Mg metal in all phenyl complex (APC) electrolytes, PHV-Cl cathodes demonstrate anion-transport behaviors with the reduction/oxidation of viologen units. This dual-ion type cell delivers a relatively high ED with reasonable stability during repeated charge/discharge (C/D) when compared with previously reported inorganic/organic cathodes in magnesium-ion batteries (MIBs). PHV-Cl shows a capacity of 171 mAh g −1 at an average discharge potential of 1.33 V vs. Mg/Mg 2+ , resulting in a significantly high ED (227 mWh g −1 ). The high ED characteristics of PHV-Cl are retained during repeated C/D cycles (201 mWh g −1 after 50 C/D) in contrast to the relative instability of other previously reported organic cathodes. Herein, the electrochemical performance of PHV-Cl in various types of electrolytes is also described. This work suggests that viologen-based cathodes with anion-transport properties could be implemented to achieve high levels of ED and stability via a dual-ion mode in MIBs, particularly with currently available electrolytes that are compatible with magnesium metal. Graphical abstract
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Chang-sheng An, Bao Zhang, Lin-bo Tang, Bin Xiao, Jun-chao Zheng LiFePO 4 is one of the most promising cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. However, its low electronic conductivity and slow Li-ion diffusion rate lead to poor electrochemical performance, especially poor rate performance. The hybrid of LiFePO 4 /Nitrogen and Sulfur co-doped graphene is successfully synthesized via a self-assembly method. Given its Nitrogen and Sulfur co-doped graphene matrix, the hybrid exerts a significantly impact on the electron conductivity of LiFePO 4 , resulting in excellent electrochemical properties and power density. The LiFePO 4 composite has reversible capacity of 106.1 mAhg −1  at 10 C and 94.6 mAhg −1 at 15 C. Moreover, with less than 5% loss of discharge capacity after 500 cycles at 10 C, the Nitrogen and Sulfur co-doped graphene can effectively improve the electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 .
    Print ISSN: 0013-4686
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): M. Celina Bonetto, Fernando F. Muñoz, Virginia E. Diz, Natalia J. Sacco, Eduardo Cortón Glassy carbon electrodes (GC) were modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT/GC) and electrochemically treated first by applying an oxidation potential and then a reduction potential. The resulting electrodes were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques, particularly cyclic voltammetry using the redox probes Fe(CN) 6 3− /4- and Ru(NH 3 ) 2+/3+ and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using Fe(CN) 6 3− /4- . These modified electrodes showed an electrochemical determination selective for dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA), simultaneously measured, with a high reproducibility (an RSD of 1.7% for DA and 1.6% for 5HT) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 235 nmol L −1 for DA and 460 nmol L −1 for 5HT. The GC electrodes modified with oxidized MWCNT, subsequently reduced, showed higher selectivity towards the oxidation of DA and 5HT compared with GC bare electrodes or modified with MWCNT or oxidized MWCNT. Graphical abstract
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Kukjoo Lee, Tae-Hyun Kim We develop poly(aniline- co -anthranilic acid), PAAA, as a new electrically conductive and mechanically stable polymeric binder material for silicon anodes. In contrast to the electrically conductive but poorly Si-adhering polyaniline, the PAAA copolymer, which is designed to consist of anthranilic acid units as well as aniline units, is found to adhere to Si strongly in addition to being electrically conductive, and is hence able to be used alone for the production of the silicon anode. Various PAAA copolymers having different relative amounts of anthranilic acid are prepared to investigate the effect of anthranilic acid on the electrical and physical properties of the corresponding electrodes. The copolymer whose composition is 50% aniline and 50% anthranilic acid displays the best cell performance due to the most balanced electrical conductivity and physical properties, with a specific capacity of 1946 mAh g −1 at the 50th cycle, which represents a retention of 81.6% of the initial capacity, on a high mass loading electrode of 1.5 mg cm −2 . Graphical abstract
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Dieter Britz, Jörg Strutwolf The two-dimensional Saul'yev method of simulating processes at a disk electrode is tested in the presence of homogeneous chemical reactions. The catalytic EC′ reaction can produce a thin reaction layer, which is a test of any simulation method. The second-order Birk/Perone (B/P) reaction is similarly a test because of the nonlinear term appearing in the kinetic equations (although it does not give rise to a thin reaction layer). The Saul'yev method handles these with no special problems and is competitive, in terms of speed, with implicit methods at similar accuracy (and faster in the case of the nonlinear B/P case).
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Muhammad Rashid, Asit Sahoo, Amit Gupta, Yogesh Sharma Lithium titanate oxide (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , LTO) is receiving significant attention as an alternative to graphitic anode due to high structural and thermal stability, and reduced possibility of formation of SEI film. In this study, Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 is synthesized by the solid-state method and its electrochemical characteristics are examined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. Moreover, we demonstrate the first instance of a numerical model used to understand the role of cell parameters in Li-LTO half-cells. The simulated charge-discharge capacity curves at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 C currents are in good agreement with experimental findings. Using this model, the effect of particle size, lithium diffusivity and electrode thickness on the charge-discharge capacity of Li-LTO cells have been investigated. Simulations show that the cell capacity is highly dependent on lithium transport in the solid matrix specifically at high current. Critical analysis of lithium concentration inside the solid matrix reveals a poor utilization of lithium storage sites and lower cyclable lithium in case larger particles and lower lithium diffusivity. The rise in the thickness of electrode leads to the lower achievable specific capacity of the battery due to increased cell overpotential and transport limitations for Li-ions and electrons.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Zhongcheng Li, Jiaojiao Ma, Ying Zhou, Zhengmao Yin, Yubao Tang, Yinxue Ma, Debao Wang Search and design of cost-effective but high efficient functional catalysts, alternatives to noble metals, are essential for hydrogen evolution reaction. Herein, we develop the MoS 2 nanoflowers with 210–470 nm in diameter constructed by nanosheets using a facile hydrothermal method. The MoS 2 nanoflowers obtained expose greater numbers of unsaturated S atoms on the edge sites and exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activities in acidic medium. When serving in hydrogen evolution reaction, MoS 2 nanoflowers show enhanced catalytic activity with the onset potential of 117 mV and the required potential of 255 mV to achieve a current density of 10 mA/cm 2 , which is superior to commercial MoS 2 under the same conditions. Meanwhile, the MoS 2 nanoflowers also show excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the higher stability without apparent activity loss and long-term durability for 5 h are also observed. Overall, the MoS 2 nanoflowers exhibit excellent activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction and are a promising functional catalyst in practical application. Graphical abstract
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Electrochimica Acta, Volume 283 Author(s): Atanu Roy, Apurba Ray, Samik Saha, Monalisa Ghosh, Trisha Das, Biswarup Satpati, Mahasweta Nandi, Sachindranath Das Nickel-oxide-Carbon nanotube (NiO-CNT) composite has been synthesized and its multifunctional electrochemical properties have been demonstrated by investigating the supercapacitive performance and the oxygen evolution reactivity. The composite exhibits interlinked porous structure and offers high surface area which has been observed by X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. NiO-CNT composite offers a specific capacitance of 878.19 F g −1 at a scan rate of 2 mV s −1 along with high cyclic stability. Asymmetric supercapacitor has been fabricated with the composite material as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode and 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte medium. The device offers a specific capacitance of 197.7 F g −1 at a scan rate of 2 mV s −1 . It exhibits specific energy and specific power 85.7 Wh kg −1 and 11.2 kW kg −1 , respectively. The device is capable of powering LED and DC motor for several minutes. Moreover, NiO-CNT composite shows excellent activity as a catalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction. The composite offers an overpotential of 0.301 V. The material shows excellent long term performance. This multifunctional composite material is a promising candidate for future applications in energy storage and conversion.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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