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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    New York : Micropaleontology Press
    Keywords: Konferenzschrift
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: II, 45 S , Ill., graph. Darst., Kt
    Series Statement: Micropaleontology 49.2003, Suppl. 2
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35 (2004), S. 523-556 
    ISSN: 1543-592X
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The evolutionary succession of marine photoautotrophs began with the origin of photosynthesis in the Archean Eon, perhaps as early as 3.8 billion years ago. Since that time, Earth's atmosphere, continents, and oceans have undergone substantial cyclic and secular physical, chemical, and biological changes that selected for different phytoplankton taxa. Early in the history of eukaryotic algae, between 1.6 and 1.2 billion years ago, an evolutionary schism gave rise to "green" (chlorophyll b-containing) and "red" (chlorophyll c-containing) plastid groups. Members of the "green" plastid line were important constituents of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic oceans, and, ultimately, one green clade colonized land. By the mid-Mesozoic, the green line had become ecologically less important in the oceans. In its place, three groups of chlorophyll c-containing eukaryotes, the dinoflagellates, coccolithophorids, and diatoms, began evolutionary trajectories that have culminated in ecological dominance in the contemporary oceans. Breakup of the supercontinent Pangea, continental shelf flooding, and changes in ocean redox chemistry may all have contributed to this evolutionary transition. At the same time, the evolution of these modern eukaryotic taxa has influenced both the structure of marine food webs and global biogeochemical cycles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-05-26
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 12 (2011): Q04003, doi:10.1029/2010GC003333.
    Description: Core top samples from Indonesian and northeast Atlantic depth transects were used to calibrate Mg/Ca and δ18O in tests of the calcitic benthic foraminifer Hyalinea balthica to bottom water temperature between 4°C and 13°C. This shallow infaunal species is primarily abundant in neritic to upper bathyal sediments (〈600 m). Both linear and exponential calibrations suggest a temperature sensitivity of ~12% per °C that is ~4 times higher than observed in other species of deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Culture experiments support the core top calibration. We find no discernible effect of salinity and saturation on Mg/Ca. Comparison between the measured benthic foraminiferal δ18O and predicted equilibrium values suggests that on average H. balthica δ18O is 0.64‰ ± 0.13‰ lower than predicted from the equilibrium composition. To test the reliability of using paired H. balthica Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements for reconstructing seawater δ18Osw and salinity, we apply this calibration to another depth transect from Cape Ghir off NW Africa, which was not included in the calibration. Based on error analysis of the calibration data and this validation test, we show that the uncertainty of reconstructing bottom water temperature and salinity from paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements of H. balthica is better than ±0.7°C and ±0.69 practical salinity scale, respectively. The small uncertainties allow for the reconstruction of seawater density to better than 0.3σθ units, which is precise enough for the identification of specific water masses and reconstruction of changes in their properties. We propose that the relatively high Mg content and temperature sensitivity of H. balthica might be due to minor, biologically mediated contribution of high-Mg calcite to the primarily low Mg calcite test, which is influenced by the ambient temperature. This hypothesis, if correct, suggests that benthic species with relatively high Mg/Ca may be better suited for deepwater temperature reconstructions than species that have thus far been more commonly used.
    Description: This project was funded by NSF Awards OCE 02‐20922 and 09‐02977 to YR, OCE 09‐28607 to MK, OCE02‐20776 to DWO, and DFG priority program INTERDYNAMIK to AM.
    Keywords: Mg/Ca ; Benthic foraminifera ; Temperature calibration ; Isotope
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Katz, Miriam E; Katz, David R; Wright, James D; Miller, Kenneth G; Pak, Dorothy K; Shackleton, Nicholas J; Thomas, Ellen (2003): Early Cenozoic benthic foraminiferal isotopes: Species reliability and interspecies correction factors. Paleoceanography, 18(2), 1024, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002PA000798
    Publication Date: 2024-07-19
    Description: Oxygen and carbon isotope records are important tools used to reconstruct past ocean and climate conditions, with those of benthic foraminifera providing information on the deep oceans. Reconstructions are complicated by interspecies isotopic offsets that result from microhabitat preferences (carbonate precipitation in isotopically distinct environments) and vital effects (species-specific metabolic variation in isotopic fractionation). We provide correction factors for early Cenozoic benthic foraminifera commonly used for isotopic measurements (Cibicidoides spp., Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis spp., Stensioina beccariiformis, Hanzawaia ammophila, and Bulimina spp.), showing that most yield reliable isotopic proxies of environmental change. The statistical methods and larger data sets used in this study provide more robust correction factors than do previous studies. Interspecies isotopic offsets appear to have changed through the Cenozoic, either (1) as a result of evolutionary changes or (2) as an artifact of different statistical methods and data set sizes used to determine the offsets in different studies. Regardless of the reason, the assumption that isotopic offsets have remained constant through the Cenozoic has introduced an 1-2°C uncertainty into deep sea paleotemperature calculations. In addition, we compare multiple species isotopic data from a western North Atlantic section that includes the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum to determine the most reliable isotopic indicator for this event. We propose that Oridorsalis spp. was the most reliable deepwater isotopic recorder at this location because it was best able to withstand the harsh water conditions that existed at this time; it may be the best recorder at other locations and for other extreme events also.
    Keywords: 114-698; 114-699; 114-700; 114-702; 145-883; 145-884; 171-1051A; 171-1051B; 171-1052A; 171-1052B; 171-1052C; 171-1052F; Blake Nose, North Atlantic Ocean; COMPCORE; Composite Core; DRILL; Drilling/drill rig; Joides Resolution; Leg114; Leg145; Leg171B; North Pacific Ocean; Ocean Drilling Program; ODP; South Atlantic Ocean
    Type: dataset publication series
    Format: application/zip, 12 datasets
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Miller, Kenneth G; Browning, James V; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Wade, Bridget S; Katz, Miriam E; Kulpecz, Andrew A; Wright, James D (2008): Eocene-Oligocene global climate and sea-level changes: St. Stephens Quarry, Alabama. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 120(1/2), 34-53, https://doi.org/10.1130/B26105.1
    Publication Date: 2024-07-19
    Description: We integrate upper Eocene-lower Oligocene lithostratigraphic, magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, stable isotopic, benthic foraminiferal faunal, downhole log, and sequence stratigraphic studies from the Alabama St. Stephens Quarry (SSQ) core hole, linking global ice volume, sea level, and temperature changes through the greenhouse to icehouse transition of the Cenozoic. We show that the SSQ succession is dissected by hiatuses associated with sequence boundaries. Three previously reported sequence boundaries are well dated here: North Twistwood Creek-Cocoa (35.4-35.9 Ma), Mint Spring-Red Bluff (33.0 Ma), and Bucatunna-Chickasawhay (the mid-Oligocene fall, ca. 30.2 Ma). In addition, we document three previously undetected or controversial sequences: mid-Pachuta (33.9-35.0 Ma), Shubuta-Bumpnose (lowermost Oligocene, ca. 33.6 Ma), and Byram-Glendon (30.5-31.7 Ma). An ~0.9 per mil d18O increase in the SSQ core hole is correlated to the global earliest Oligocene (Oi1) event using magnetobiostratigraphy; this increase is associated with the Shubuta-Bumpnose contact, an erosional surface, and a biofacies shift in the core hole, providing a first-order correlation between ice growth and a sequence boundary that indicates a sea-level fall. The d18O increase is associated with a eustatic fall of ~55 m, indicating that ~0.4 per mil of the increase at Oi1 time was due to temperature. Maximum d18O values of Oi1 occur above the sequence boundary, requiring that deposition resumed during the lowest eustatic lowstand. A precursor d18O increase of 0.5 per mil (33.8 Ma, midchron C13r) at SSQ correlates with a 0.5 per mil increase in the deep Pacific Ocean; the lack of evidence for a sea-level change with the precursor suggests that this was primarily a cooling event, not an ice-volume event. Eocene-Oligocene shelf water temperatures of ~17-19 °C at SSQ are similar to modern values for 100 m water depth in this region. Our study establishes the relationships among ice volume, d18O, and sequences: a latest Eocene cooling event was followed by an earliest Oligocene ice volume and cooling event that lowered sea level and formed a sequence boundary during the early stages of eustatic fall.
    Keywords: Alabama, Alabama, U.S.A., North America; DRILL; Drilling/drill rig; SSQ; St-Stephens-Quarry
    Type: dataset publication series
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Katz, Miriam E; Cramer, Benjamin S; Toggweiler, J Robbie; Esmay, Gar; Liu, Chengji; Miller, Kenneth G; Rosenthal, Yair; Wade, Bridget S; Wright, James D (2011): Impact of Antarctic Circumpolar Current development on late Paleogene ocean structure. Science, 332(6033), 1076-7079, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1202122
    Publication Date: 2024-07-19
    Description: Global cooling and the development of continental-scale Antarctic glaciation occurred in the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~38 to 28 million years ago), accompanied by deep-ocean reorganization attributed to gradual Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) development. Our benthic foraminiferal stable isotope comparisons show that a large d13C offset developed between mid-depth (~600 meters) and deep (〉1000 meters) western North Atlantic waters in the early Oligocene, indicating the development of intermediate-depth d13C and O2 minima closely linked in the modern ocean to northward incursion of Antarctic Intermediate Water. At the same time, the ocean's coldest waters became restricted to south of the ACC, probably forming a bottom-ocean layer, as in the modern ocean. We show that the modern four-layer ocean structure (surface, intermediate, deep, and bottom waters) developed during the early Oligocene as a consequence of the ACC.
    Keywords: 171-1053; 171-1053A; ASP-5; Carolina Slope, North Atlantic Ocean; COMPCORE; Composite Core; DRILL; Drilling/drill rig; Joides Resolution; Leg171B; North Atlantic; Ocean Drilling Program; ODP
    Type: dataset publication series
    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2024-07-19
    Description: Sedimentary records from the equatorial Pacific show that the deepening of the carbonate compensation depth (depth below which the calcium carbonate flux to the seafloor is balanced by dissolution) at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (~33.9 Ma) was preceded by several episodes of high and low carbonate accumulation rates. However, data from other basins are scarce. Here, we report middle-late Eocene carbonate accumulation rates from sites located in the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Southern Oceans. Our results show that the calcium carbonate burial was geographically, bathymetrically, and temporally heterogenous suggesting the fundamental role of surface calcium carbonate production in driving middle-late Eocene carbonate accumulation rates. Our data also suggest that an increase in ocean ventilation might have influenced calcium carbonate preservation at depths 〉 2500 m.
    Keywords: Carbonate accumulation rates; Eocene; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program / International Ocean Discovery Program; IODP; ocean drilling program; Ocean Drilling Program; ODP; Site 1053; Site 1090; Site 1218; Site 1263; Site 689; Site 699; Site 709; Site 711; Site 748; Site 884; Site 929; Site U1404; Site U1406
    Type: dataset publication series
    Format: application/zip, 13 datasets
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Katz, Miriam E; Miller, Kenneth G (1986): Neogene benthic foraminiferal biofacies of the New Jersey Transect. In: Poag, CW; Watts, AB; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 95, 299-311, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.95.108.1987
    Publication Date: 2024-07-22
    Description: Quantitative study of benthic foraminifers from the upper Miocene to lower Pliocene section at Site 612 (1404 m present water depth) and the Pliocene section at Site 613 (2323 m present water depth) shows no evidence of widespread downslope transport of shallow-water biofacies or reworking of older material in the greater than 150 µm size fraction. In contrast, upper Miocene sediments from Site 604 (2364 m present water depth) show extensive reworking and downslope transport. At Site 612, benthic foraminifers show a succession from an upper Miocene Bolivina alata-Nonionella sp. biofacies, to an uppermost Miocene Bulimina alazanensis biofacies, to a lower Pliocene Cassidulina reflexa biofacies, to an upper Pliocene Melonis barleeanum-Islandiella laevigata biofacies. Evidence suggests that the Pliocene biofacies are in situ, although they could have been transported downslope from the upper-middle bathyal zone. At Site 613, Uvigerina peregrina dominated the "middle" Pliocene, while Globocassidulina subglobosa was dominant in the early and late Pliocene. High abundances of U. peregrina at Site 613 are associated with high values of sedimentary organic carbon.
    Keywords: Deep Sea Drilling Project; DSDP
    Type: dataset publication series
    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 9
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Miller, Kenneth G; Katz, Miriam E (1987): Eocene benthic foraminiferal biofacies of the New Jersey Transect. In: Poag, CW; Watts, AB; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 95, 267-298, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.95.107.1987
    Publication Date: 2024-07-22
    Description: Benthic foraminiferal biofacies may vary independently of water depth and water mass; however, calibration of biofacies and stratigraphic ranges with independent paleodepth estimates allows reconstruction of age-depth patterns applicable throughout the deep Atlantic (Tjalsma and Lohmann, 1983). We have attempted to test these faunal calibrations in a continental margin setting, reconstructing Eocene benthic foraminiferal distributions along a dip section afforded by the New Jersey Transect (DSDP Sites 612, 108, 613). The following independent estimates of Eocene depths for the transect were obtained by "backtracking," "backstripping," and by assuming increasing depth downdip ("paleoslope"): Site 612, near the middle/lower bathyal boundary (about 1000 m); Site 108, in the middle bathyal zone (about 1600 m); and Site 613, near the lower bathyal/upper abyssal boundary (about 2000 m). Within uncertainties of backtracking (hundreds of meters), these estimates agree with estimates of paleodepth based on comparison of the New Jersey margin biofacies with other backtracked faunas. The stratigraphic ranges of many benthic taxa correspond to those found at other Atlantic DSDP sites. The major biofacies patterns show: (1) a depth dichotomy between an early to middle Eocene Nuttallides truempyidominated biofacies (greater than 2000 m) and a Lenticulina-Osangularia-Alabamina cf. dissonata biofacies (1000- 2000 m); and (2) a difference between a middle and a late Eocene biofacies at Site 612. The faunal boundary at about 2000 m, between bathyal and abyssal zones, occurs not only on the margin, but also throughout the deep Atlantic. The faunal change between the middle and late Eocene at Site 612 was due to a decrease of Lenticulina spp., the local disappearance of N. truempyi, and establishment of a Bulimina alazanensis-Gyroidinoides spp. biofacies. Although this change could be attributed to local paleoceanographic or water-depth changes, we argue that it is the bathyal expression of a global deep-sea benthic foraminiferal change which occurred across the middle/late Eocene boundary.
    Keywords: Deep Sea Drilling Project; DSDP
    Type: dataset publication series
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2024-07-19
    Keywords: 145-883; Cibicidoides spp., δ13C; Cibicidoides spp., δ18O; COMPCORE; Composite Core; DEPTH, sediment/rock; Isotope ratio mass spectrometry; Joides Resolution; Leg145; North Pacific Ocean; Nuttallides truempyi, δ13C; Nuttallides truempyi, δ18O; Ocean Drilling Program; ODP
    Type: dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 28 data points
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