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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 116 (1925), S. 642-643 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IN view of the expense involved in equipping laboratories with more accurate apparatus, the following device suggested to me by Prof. Lancelot Hogben may prove serviceable for class work in experimental biology, where thermostats are often required for various purposes such as the temperature ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 113 (1975), S. 389-402 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary New measurements on the stratospheric distribution of H2, CH4, CO and N2O are presented and used to demonstrate the natural variability of the trace gas concentrations. The present CH4 and H2 measurements and data from older balloon flights are combined to give average vertical profiles. These profiles are compared with water vapor data from various authors to see if the vertical decrease in CH4 is matched by a corresponding increase in H2O. By comparing the average measured profiles to those predicted by a one-dimensional chemical model, profiles of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficientk z are deduced. Generally, a barrier in the low stratosphere and increasing transport in middle and upper stratosphere seem required to match theoretical and experimental profiles. The limitations of the calculatedk z are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Brazil ; tropics ; biomass burning ; natural emissions ; air pollution ; global pollution ; nitrogen oxides ; hydrocarbons ; carbon monoxide ; ozone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Field measurement programs in Brazil during the dry seasons in August and September 1979 and 1980 have demonstrated the large importance of the continental tropics in global air chemistry. Many important trace gases are produced in large amounts over the continents. During the dry season, much biomass burning takes place, especially in the cerrado regions, leading to a substantial emission of air pollutants, such as CO, NO x , N2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons. Ozone concentrations are enhanced due to photochemical reactions. The large biogenic organic emissions from tropical forests play an important role in the photochemistry of the atmosphere and explain why CO is present in such high concentrations in the boundary layer of the tropical forest. Carbon monoxide production may represent more than 3% of the net primary productivity of the tropical forests. Ozone concentrations in the boundary layer of the tropical forests indicate strong removal processes. Due to atmospheric supply of NO x by lightning, there is probably a large production of O3 in the free troposphere over the Amazon tropical forests. This is transported to the marine-free troposphere and to the forest boundary layer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-10-06
    Description: Objective Estimate the incidence of placenta accreta and describe risk factors, clinical practice and perinatal outcomes. Design Case–control study. Setting Sites in Australia and New Zealand with at least 50 births per year. Participants Cases were women giving birth (≥20 weeks or fetus ≥400 g) who were diagnosed with placenta accreta by antenatal imaging, at operation or by pathology specimens between 2010 and 2012. Controls were two births immediately prior to a case. A total of 295 cases were included and 570 controls. Methods Data were collected using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System. Primary and secondary outcome measures Incidence, risk factors (eg, prior caesarean section (CS), maternal age) and clinical outcomes of placenta accreta (eg CS, hysterectomy and death). Results The incidence of placenta accreta was 44.2/100 000 women giving birth (95% CI 39.4 to 49.5); however, this may overestimated due to the case definition used. In primiparous women, an increased odds of placenta accreta was observed in older women (adjusted OR (AOR) women≥40 vs 〈30: 19.1, 95% CI 4.6 to 80.3) and current multiple birth (AOR: 6.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 34.1). In multiparous women, independent risk factors were prior CS (AOR ≥2 prior sections vs 0: 13.8, 95% CI 7.4 to 26.1) and current placenta praevia (AOR: 36.3, 95% CI 14.0 to 93.7). There were two maternal deaths (case fatality rate 0.7%). Women with placenta accreta were more likely to have a caesarean section (AOR: 4.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 7.6) to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)/high dependency unit (AOR: 46.1, 95% CI 22.3 to 95.4) and to have a hysterectomy (AOR: 209.0, 95% CI 19.9 to 875.0). Babies born to women with placenta accreta were more likely to be preterm, be admitted to neonatal ICU and require resuscitation.
    Keywords: Open access
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-11-30
    Description: Introduction Maternal mortality is a potentially preventable public health issue. Maternal morbidity is increasingly of interest to aid the reduction of maternal mortality. Obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are an important part of the global burden of maternal morbidity. Social determinants influence health outcomes of pregnant women. Additionally, intimate partner violence has a great negative impact on women's health and pregnancy outcome. However, little is known about the contextual and social aspects of obstetric patients treated in the ICU. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the social determinants and exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric patients admitted to an ICU. Methods and analysis A systematic search will be conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest, LILACS and SciELO from 2000 to 2016. Studies published in English and Spanish will be identified in relation to data reporting on social determinants of health and/or exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric women, treated in the ICU during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of the end of pregnancy. Two reviewers will independently screen for study eligibility and data extraction. Risk of bias and assessment of the quality of the included studies will be performed by using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Data will be analysed and summarised using a narrative description of the available evidence across studies. This systematic review protocol will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Ethics and dissemination Since this systematic review will be based on published studies, ethical approval is not required. Findings will be presented at La Trobe University, in Conferences and Congresses, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number CRD42016037492.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology, Intensive care, Public health, Obgyn
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: BACKGROUND Incidence rates and trends of cancers in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 15 to 39 years were reexamined a decade after the US National Cancer Institute AYA Oncology Progress Review Group was established. METHODS Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through 2011 were used to ascertain incidence trends since the year 2000 of the 40 most frequent cancers in AYAs, including tumors with nonmalignant/noninvasive behavior. RESULTS Seven cancers in AYAs exhibited an overall increase in incidence; in 4, the annual percent change (APC) exceeded 3 (kidney, thyroid, uterus [corpus], and prostate cancer); whereas, in 3, the APC was between 0.7 and 1.4 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia and cancers of the colorectum and testis). Eight cancers exhibited statistically significant decreases in incidence among AYAs: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), fibromatous neoplasms, melanoma, and cancers of the anorectum, bladder, uterine cervix, esophagus, and lung, each with an APC less than −1. AYAs had a higher proportion of noninvasive tumors than either older or younger patients. CONCLUSIONS An examination of cancer incidence patterns in AYAs observed over the recent decade reveal a complex pattern. Thyroid cancer by itself accounts for most of the overall increase and is likely caused by overdiagnosis. Reductions in cervix and lung cancer, melanoma, and KS can be attributed to successful national prevention programs. A higher proportion of noninvasive tumors in AYAs than in children and older adults indicates a need to revise the current system of classifying tumors in this population. Cancer 2016 . © 2016 American Cancer Society .
    Print ISSN: 0008-543X
    Electronic ISSN: 1097-0142
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of The American Cancer Society.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-11
    Description: Normally folded prion protein (PrPC) and its functions in healthy brains remain underappreciated compared with the intense study of its misfolded forms (“prions,” PrPSc) during the pathobiology of prion diseases. This impedes the development of therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer's and prion diseases. Disrupting the zebrafish homologs of PrPC has provided novel insights; however, mutagenesis of the zebrafish paralog prp2 did not recapitulate previous dramatic developmental phenotypes, suggesting redundancy with the prp1 paralog. Here, we generated zebrafish prp1 loss–of–function mutant alleles and dual prp1−/−;prp2−/− mutants. Zebrafish prp1−/− and dual prp1−/−;prp2−/− mutants resemble mammalian Prnp knockouts insofar as they lack overt phenotypes, which surprisingly contrasts with reports of severe developmental phenotypes when either prp1 or prp2 is knocked down acutely. Previous studies suggest that PrPC participates in neural cell development/adhesion, including in zebrafish where loss of prp2 affects adhesion and deposition patterns of lateral line neuromasts. In contrast with the expectation that prp1's functions would be redundant to prp2, they appear to have opposing functions in lateral line neurodevelopment. Similarly, loss of prp1 blunted the seizure susceptibility phenotypes observed in prp2 mutants, contrasting the expected exacerbation of phenotypes if these prion gene paralogs were serving redundant roles. In summary, prion mutant fish lack the overt phenotypes previously predicted, and instead they have subtle phenotypes similar to mammals. No evidence was found for functional redundancy in the zebrafish prion gene paralogs, and the phenotypes observed when each gene is disrupted individually are consistent with ancient functions of prion proteins in neurodevelopment and modulation of neural activity.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Introduction Preventing and reducing violence against women (VAW) and maternal mortality are Sustainable Development Goals. Worldwide, the maternal mortality ratio has fallen about 44% in the last 25 years, and for one maternal death there are many women affected by severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) requiring management in the intensive care unit (ICU). These women represent the most critically ill obstetric patients of the maternal morbidity spectrum and should be studied to complement the review of maternal mortality. VAW has been associated with all-cause maternal deaths, and since many women (30%) endure violence usually exerted by their intimate partners and this abuse can be severe during pregnancy, it is important to determine whether it impacts SAMM. Thus, this study aims to investigate the impact of VAW on SAMM in the ICU. Methods and analysis This will be a prospective case-control study undertaken in a tertiary healthcare facility in Lima-Peru, with a sample size of 109 cases (obstetric patients admitted to the ICU) and 109 controls (obstetric patients not admitted to the ICU selected by systematic random sampling). Data on social determinants, medical and obstetric characteristics, VAW, pregnancy and neonatal outcome will be collected through interviews and by extracting information from the medical records using a pretested form. Main outcome will be VAW rate and neonatal mortality rate between cases and controls. VAW will be assessed by using the WHO instrument. Binary logistic followed by stepwise multivariate regression and goodness of fit test will assess any association between VAW and SAMM. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted by the La Trobe University, Melbourne-Australia and the tertiary healthcare facility in Lima-Peru. This research follows the WHO ethical and safety recommendations for research on VAW. Findings will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.
    Keywords: Open access, Public health
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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