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  • Open access  (1)
  • nitrogen oxides  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Brazil ; tropics ; biomass burning ; natural emissions ; air pollution ; global pollution ; nitrogen oxides ; hydrocarbons ; carbon monoxide ; ozone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Field measurement programs in Brazil during the dry seasons in August and September 1979 and 1980 have demonstrated the large importance of the continental tropics in global air chemistry. Many important trace gases are produced in large amounts over the continents. During the dry season, much biomass burning takes place, especially in the cerrado regions, leading to a substantial emission of air pollutants, such as CO, NO x , N2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons. Ozone concentrations are enhanced due to photochemical reactions. The large biogenic organic emissions from tropical forests play an important role in the photochemistry of the atmosphere and explain why CO is present in such high concentrations in the boundary layer of the tropical forest. Carbon monoxide production may represent more than 3% of the net primary productivity of the tropical forests. Ozone concentrations in the boundary layer of the tropical forests indicate strong removal processes. Due to atmospheric supply of NO x by lightning, there is probably a large production of O3 in the free troposphere over the Amazon tropical forests. This is transported to the marine-free troposphere and to the forest boundary layer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-10-06
    Description: Objective Estimate the incidence of placenta accreta and describe risk factors, clinical practice and perinatal outcomes. Design Case–control study. Setting Sites in Australia and New Zealand with at least 50 births per year. Participants Cases were women giving birth (≥20 weeks or fetus ≥400 g) who were diagnosed with placenta accreta by antenatal imaging, at operation or by pathology specimens between 2010 and 2012. Controls were two births immediately prior to a case. A total of 295 cases were included and 570 controls. Methods Data were collected using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System. Primary and secondary outcome measures Incidence, risk factors (eg, prior caesarean section (CS), maternal age) and clinical outcomes of placenta accreta (eg CS, hysterectomy and death). Results The incidence of placenta accreta was 44.2/100 000 women giving birth (95% CI 39.4 to 49.5); however, this may overestimated due to the case definition used. In primiparous women, an increased odds of placenta accreta was observed in older women (adjusted OR (AOR) women≥40 vs 〈30: 19.1, 95% CI 4.6 to 80.3) and current multiple birth (AOR: 6.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 34.1). In multiparous women, independent risk factors were prior CS (AOR ≥2 prior sections vs 0: 13.8, 95% CI 7.4 to 26.1) and current placenta praevia (AOR: 36.3, 95% CI 14.0 to 93.7). There were two maternal deaths (case fatality rate 0.7%). Women with placenta accreta were more likely to have a caesarean section (AOR: 4.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 7.6) to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)/high dependency unit (AOR: 46.1, 95% CI 22.3 to 95.4) and to have a hysterectomy (AOR: 209.0, 95% CI 19.9 to 875.0). Babies born to women with placenta accreta were more likely to be preterm, be admitted to neonatal ICU and require resuscitation.
    Keywords: Open access
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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