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  • Demyelination  (3)
  • Schwann cells  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words     HLA-DR ; Neuropathies ; Macrophages ; Fibroblasts ; Schwann cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract      The expression of HLA-DR and the macrophage marker CD 68 was studied in 44 sural nerve biopsies from patients with inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies and controls using immunohistochemistry on non-osmicated semithin sections, a technique that has not been used before in such a biopsy study. Most HLA-DR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were fibroblasts, macrophages or perineurial cells, some were perivascular and endothelial cells, and only few were Schwann cells. Counts of immunoreactive cells revealed (a) increased HLA-DR expression in severe as compared to less severe neuropathies and to controls, (b) no correlation between the numbers of HLA-DR-ir cells and CD 68-ir macrophages, and (c) no close correlation between diagnostic groups and the number of HLA-DR-ir cells, but higher numbers in inflammatory neuropathies. We conclude that endoneurial fibroblasts and macrophages as antigen-presenting cells may be mediators in various peripheral nerve diseases, not only in inflammatory disorders.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: HLA-DR ; Neuropathies ; Macrophages Fibroblasts ; Schwann cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The expression of HLA-DR and the macrophage marker CD 68 was studied in 44 sural nerve biopsies from patients with inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies and controls using immunohistochemistry on non-osmicated semithin sections, a technique that has not been used before in such a biopsy study. Most HLA-DR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were fibroblasts, macrophages on perineurial cells, some were perivascular and endothelial cells, and only few were Schwann cells. Counts of immunoreactive cells revealed (a) increased HLA-DR expression in severe as compared to less severe neuropathies and to controls, (b) no correlation between the numbers of HLA-DR-ir cells and CD 68-ir macrophages, and (c) no close correlation between diagnostic groups and the number of HLA-DR-ir cells, but higher numbers in inflammatory neuropathies. We conclude that endoneurial fibroblasts and macrophages as antigen-presenting cells may be mediators in various peripheral nerve diseases, not only in inflammatory disorders.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Schwann cell inclusions ; Demyelination ; Myelinated nerve fibers ; Morphometry ; Peripheral ; neuropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the cytoplasm of Schwann cells of a sural nerve biopsy from a 21-year-old female patient with chronic neuropathy we noted numerous unique, usually double membrane-bound, osmiophilic, granular or globular inclusions, approximately 30–600 μm in diameter. Some of these membrane-bound vesicular or tubular structures contained less dense or no osmiophilic inclusions. Morphometry revealed a reduction of the myelin area per endoneural area to approximately 13% (normal value: 20– 30%) and of the density of myelinated nerve fibers to 5,412/mm2 (normal value at this age: 6,000–9,000/mm2). Large myelinated nerve fibers were predominantly reduced in number, and no myelinated nerve fibers with diameters larger than 4.5 μm were seen. Numerous, usually small onion bulb formations indicated a predominantly demyelinating type of neuropathy. This is to the best of our knowledge the first case of a chronic demyelinating neuropathy in which this kind of presumably pathognostic deposits in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells was detected.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Mitochondrial myopathies ; Peripheral neuropathy ; Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy ; Schwann cells ; Arterioles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifteen cases of mitochondrial myopathy, three cases of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) VI, and 280 cases of neuropathies of different etiologies were examined by electron microscopy for the presence of mitochondrial abnormalities in the sural nerve. Altered mitochondria were found in most cases of mitochondrial myopathy, in all cases of HMSN VI, and in 25 cases out of the series of unselected neuropathies. The mitochondrial changes comprised enlargement with an amorphous matrix and distorted cristae, with hexagonal paracrystalline inclusions, and with prominent cristae containing oblique striations, and a variety of rare changes. Most mitochondrial abnormalities were found in Schwann cells. An increase of the number of mitochondria was noted in smooth muscle and endothelial cells of epineurial arterioles of two cases with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Neuropathy was present in all cases of mitochondrial myopathy according to morphometrical analysis. Whether neuropathy is caused directly by mitochondrial dysfunction or by other pathogenetic mechanisms remains to be determined.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 14 (1970), S. 261-283 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Allergic Neuritis ; Electron Microscopy ; Mononuclear Cells ; Demyelination ; Remyelination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Kaninchen mit einer experimentell-allergischen Neuritis (EAN) wurden 8 Tage bis 4 Monate nach der Injektion einer Emulsion aus heterologem Nervengewebe mit Freundschem Adjuvans phasenkontrast- und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Im akuten Stadium der Demyelinisation ist eine Beteiligung von mononucleären Infiltratzellen am Vorgang der Entmarkung peripherer Nervenfasern in der gleichen Weise nachweisbar, wie es Lampert (1969) bei der EAN von Ratten dargestellt hat. Da die Markscheidenschäden jedoch nicht immer in unmittelbarem Kontakt mit den Infiltratzellen auftreten, sind humorale Faktoren, die möglicherweise von den Infiltratzellen ausgeschieden werden, als Ursache der Markscheidenschäden nicht mit Sicherheit auszuschließen. Der weitere Abbau der geschädigten Markscheiden findet dann sowohl in den zu Makrophagen transformierten Infiltratzellen als auch in den proliferierenden Schwann-Zellen statt. Ausnahmsweise dominieren unter den Infiltratzellen auch bei der einfachen experimentell-allergischen Neuritis neutrophile Leukocyteninfiltrate; sie kommen in Zusammenhang mit anderen Zeichen einer schweren Störung der Gefäßnervenschranke wie Erythrodiapedesen und Fibrinexsudaten im fortgeschrittenen Stadium der Gewebsschädigung vor. Auf Axonläsionen und die im Ausheilungsstadium der EAN vorkommenden Zwiebelschalenformationen sowie die wiederholt beobachteten Gruppen regenerierter, von einer gemeinsamen Basalmembran gebündelter Nervenfasern wird kurz hingewiesen.
    Notes: Summary Rabbits with experimental allergic neuritis (EAN), induced by intradermally injected emulsified heterologous antigen together with Freund's adjuvant, were investigated by phase and electron microscopy 8 days to 4 months after the injection. Early lesions of the myelin sheaths in EAN can be demonstrated to occur in close contact with infiltrated mononuclear cells as has been reported by Lampert (1969) in rats. Yet since myelin lesions are not always restricted to areas of immediate contact with infiltrated mononuclear cells, it cannot be excluded that humoral factors, possibly excreted by the infiltrated cells, may initiate the myelin lesions. Further breakdown of myelin sheaths takes place in proliferating Schwann cells as well as in infiltrated mononuclear cells. Occasionally, neutrophilic leucocytes predominate among the cellular infiltrates. They occur together with erythrodiapedesis, and fibrinous exsudates in areas of severance of the blood-nerve barrier. Axonal lesions, and during remyelination, “onion bulb” formation were also seen as a sequence of the demyelinating lesions. Also, bundles of small regenerated nerve fibers enclosed by a single basement membrane were repeatedly observed in areas with remyelinated nerve fibers.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Ethylene oxide ; Peripheral neuropathy ; Morphometry ; Electron microscopy ; Demyelination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A case is reported of ethylene oxide polyneuropathy after 5 months of exposure. There was symmetrical distal weakness of both lower extremities and transitory reduced nerve conduction velocities with increased latencies. Sural nerve biopsy revealed nerve fibre degeneration of the Wallerian type, associated with reduction of axonal cross-sectional areas and some degree of nerve fibre regeneration that could be confirmed morphometrically. In addition, there was conspicuous paranodal vesicular disintegration of individual myelin lamellae. Unusual cisternae with introverted hemidesmosomes were noted in endoneurial fibroblasts.
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