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  • Reinnervation  (3)
  • Schwann cells  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Muscle spindle ; Elastic fibres ; Elaunin fibres ; Oxytalan fibres ; Denervation ; Reinnervation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Muscle spindles in the lower lumbrical muscles of rats were studied by transmission electron microscopy following denervation with or without reinnervation. The number and total area of elastic fibres per muscle spindle increased at 3–12 months following various experimental procedures: (1) denervation and reinnervation after a single crush lesion to the sciatic nerve; (2) reinnervation after four-fold repeated crush injuries; and (3) transection and suture of the nerve. The increased number of oxytalan and elaunin fibres, the precursors of mature elastic fibres, within these muscle spindles provided further evidence for their numerical and dimensional increase. An attachment site of elastic fibres at the spindle pole was identified at the inner cells of the outer spindle capsule. The processes of these cells embraced terminating elastic fibres tightly. Attachment of elastic fibres to intrafusal muscle fibres was less conspicuous since they were not similarly embraced but were rather indistinctly, though closely, associated with the basal lamina along longitudinal surface indentations of intrafusal muscle fibres. It is concluded from this series of experiments that muscle spindles, as dynamic mechanoreceptors, maintain their elastic properties even under pathological conditions. The increase of elastic fibres following denervation and reinnervation represents an obviously meaningful reaction that may compensate for loss of tonic properties of muscle spindles without causing stiffness.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words     HLA-DR ; Neuropathies ; Macrophages ; Fibroblasts ; Schwann cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract      The expression of HLA-DR and the macrophage marker CD 68 was studied in 44 sural nerve biopsies from patients with inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies and controls using immunohistochemistry on non-osmicated semithin sections, a technique that has not been used before in such a biopsy study. Most HLA-DR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were fibroblasts, macrophages or perineurial cells, some were perivascular and endothelial cells, and only few were Schwann cells. Counts of immunoreactive cells revealed (a) increased HLA-DR expression in severe as compared to less severe neuropathies and to controls, (b) no correlation between the numbers of HLA-DR-ir cells and CD 68-ir macrophages, and (c) no close correlation between diagnostic groups and the number of HLA-DR-ir cells, but higher numbers in inflammatory neuropathies. We conclude that endoneurial fibroblasts and macrophages as antigen-presenting cells may be mediators in various peripheral nerve diseases, not only in inflammatory disorders.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 80 (1990), S. 163-171 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuromuscular spindle ; Reinnervation ; Nerve endings ; Autonomic innervation ; Scanning electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Muscle spindles from the lower lumbrical muscles of rats were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy following reinnervation (i) after a single sciatic nerve crush lesion and (ii) after transection and immediate epineurial suture of the sciatic nerve. In all muscle spindles, regenerated sensory or motor nerve endings were encountered 3 months after making the lesions although in the nerve-transection group, regenerated nerve endings were seen less frequently before 6 months of recovery. Abnormalities in reinnervated spindles following neurotomy comprised: (1) multiplicity of axonal sprouts (hyperinnervation), sometimes irregularly related to, although never in direct contact with, regenerated sensory nerve endings; (2) altered contact relationships between sensory nerve endings and intrafusal muscle fibers; (3) abnormal structure of nerve endings; and (4) irregular association of Schwann cell processes to regenerated sensory nerve endings. These findings indicate that reinnervation of muscle spindles following transection and suture of a peripheral nerve, i.e., after complete interruption of its continuity, in fact, occurs although the fine structural abnormalities observed are supposed to interfere with adequate functional restoration.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: HLA-DR ; Neuropathies ; Macrophages Fibroblasts ; Schwann cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The expression of HLA-DR and the macrophage marker CD 68 was studied in 44 sural nerve biopsies from patients with inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies and controls using immunohistochemistry on non-osmicated semithin sections, a technique that has not been used before in such a biopsy study. Most HLA-DR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were fibroblasts, macrophages on perineurial cells, some were perivascular and endothelial cells, and only few were Schwann cells. Counts of immunoreactive cells revealed (a) increased HLA-DR expression in severe as compared to less severe neuropathies and to controls, (b) no correlation between the numbers of HLA-DR-ir cells and CD 68-ir macrophages, and (c) no close correlation between diagnostic groups and the number of HLA-DR-ir cells, but higher numbers in inflammatory neuropathies. We conclude that endoneurial fibroblasts and macrophages as antigen-presenting cells may be mediators in various peripheral nerve diseases, not only in inflammatory disorders.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Mitochondrial myopathies ; Peripheral neuropathy ; Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy ; Schwann cells ; Arterioles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifteen cases of mitochondrial myopathy, three cases of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) VI, and 280 cases of neuropathies of different etiologies were examined by electron microscopy for the presence of mitochondrial abnormalities in the sural nerve. Altered mitochondria were found in most cases of mitochondrial myopathy, in all cases of HMSN VI, and in 25 cases out of the series of unselected neuropathies. The mitochondrial changes comprised enlargement with an amorphous matrix and distorted cristae, with hexagonal paracrystalline inclusions, and with prominent cristae containing oblique striations, and a variety of rare changes. Most mitochondrial abnormalities were found in Schwann cells. An increase of the number of mitochondria was noted in smooth muscle and endothelial cells of epineurial arterioles of two cases with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Neuropathy was present in all cases of mitochondrial myopathy according to morphometrical analysis. Whether neuropathy is caused directly by mitochondrial dysfunction or by other pathogenetic mechanisms remains to be determined.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Muscle spindle ; Denervation ; Reinnervation ; Muscle fiber atrophy ; Mitochondria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fine structure of normal, denervated, and reinnervated muscle spindles in lower lumbrical muscles of rats was studied morphometrically at time intervals ranging from 3–14 months. In control spindles, the mean transverse area of mitochondria was estimated to be more than twice as large in nuclear chain than in typical nuclear bag fibers. Following denervation, there was a severe decrease of the mean number and transverse area of mitochondria, and a moderate, but statistically significant decrease of the mean transverse area of intrafusal muscle fibers (IMFs) despite an increase of the number of IMFs. At 12–14 months of reinnervation, changes of the transverse areas of IMFs were statistically insignificant, but the mean values for the mitochondria were incompletely restored. At 4×3 months, after fourfold repeated crush injuries to the nerve, most of the values estimated (transverse area of mitochondria; number, shape, and transverse area of IMFs and nuclei) tended to approach those in denervated rather than in reinnervated IMFs. The differences of the reactions of intra- and extrafusal muscle fibers following complete motor and sensory denervation appeared to be in accordance with their normal dimensional dissimilarities.
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