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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (7)
  • Isoniazid  (3)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 16 (1970), S. 301-323 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Peripheral Nerves ; Nerve Degeneration ; Endoplasmic Reticulum ; Edema ; Isoniazid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Außer den bekannten Veränderungen bei der Isoniazid (INH)-Neuropathie ließen sich bestimmte Veränderungen im peripheren Nerven nachweisen, die bisher nicht beschrieben worden sind. Dazu gehören enorme Proliferationen eines glatten endoplasmatischen Reticulums in manchen Schwannzellen und extracellulär in den Büngnerschen Bändern gelegene “Nadeln”, π- and μ-Granula. Darüber hinaus ist bei der INH-Neuropathie gelegentlich eine schwere Störung der Blutnervenschranke mit Erythrodiapedesen feststellbar, die nicht zu dem Bild der einfachen Wallerschen Degeneration gehört. Das gleiche gilt für das frühzeitige Auftreten von umfangreichen elektronendichten Strukturen in histiocytären Zellelementen des Endoneuriums. Die Unterschiede der INH-Neuropathie gegenüber anderen Formen distal akzentuierter Neuropathien vom “neuronalen” oder “dying back”-Typ und gegenüber der Wallerschen Degeneration nach Durchschneidung des Nerven werden diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary Several distinctive alterations were observed in INH-neuropathy which have not been noted so far. These were striking proliferations of an agranular endoplasmic reticulum in some Schwann cells, needle-like structures situated intra- and extracellularly within reinnervated bands of Büngner, π- and μ-granules. Furthermore, a severance of the blood nerve barrier was observed leading to erythrodiapedesis which was not seen in Wallerian degeneration. This holds true also for the very early appearance of large electrondense organelles within histiocytic cells of the endoneurium. The distinguishing features of INH-neuropathy and other distally accentuated neuropathies of the “neuronal” or “dying back” type, and of Wallerian degeneration after nerve section are discussed.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 16 (1970), S. 324-341 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Spinal Cord ; Spinal Ganglia ; Neuromuscular Spindles ; Mitochondria ; Isoniazid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Entgegen anderslautender Angaben in der Literatur werden bei der INH-Neuropathie auch die sensorischen Nervenendigungen in den Muskelspindeln betroffen. Die Veränderungen bestehen in einem Verlust der synaptischen Vesikel, in Mitochondrienschwellungen und-Verdichtungserscheinungen, in terminalen Axonfragmentationen und Reaktionen der zugehörigen intrafusalen Muskelfasern. Außerdem lassen sich schon in frühesten Stadium der INH-Neuropathie, am 4. Tag nach Beginn der INH-Applikation, Veränderungen in den lumbosacralen Spinalganglien und im Rückenmark nachweisen. Die Veränderungen in den Perikaryen gleichen denen bei der retrograden Zellveränderung weitgehend. Über die Spezifität der Alterationen an den sensorischen Nervenendigungen ist vorest keine sichere Aussage möglich, da vergleichbare Untersuchungen über pathologisch veränderte Muskelspindeln, insbesondere nach der einfachen Durchschneidung des Nerven, bisher fehlen.
    Notes: Summary In INH-neuropathy sensory nerve endings of distal muscle spindles may be severely altered. The changes are characterized by a disappearance of synaptic vesicles, mitochondrial swelling or condensation, fragmentation of axon terminals and reactions of the corresponding intrafusal muscle fibers. Also, occasional alterations in lumbosacral spinal ganglia and spinal cord were seen occurring already in the initial stage of INH-neuropathy at the 4th day after the beginning of INH application. The perikaryal changes resemble those of the retrograde cell reaction. Any specificness of the alterations seen in the sensory endings of muscle spindles cannot be ruled out at the present time since there are no comparable fine structural studies of pathological alterations in muscle spindles after simple nerve section or other nerve lesions.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 15 (1970), S. 156-175 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Peripheral Nerve ; Nerve Degeneration ; Axon ; Mitochondria ; Isoniazid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im N. ischiadicus der Ratte kommen etwa doppelt so viele marklose als markhaltige Nervenfasern vor. Das normale zahlenmäßige Verhältnis dieser beiden Fasertypen schwankt in weiten Grenzen. Schon im ungeschädigten Nerven lassen sich bereits an einzelnen marklosen Nervenfasern verschiedenartige regressive Veränderungen wie Strukturverlust und perlschnurförmige Auftreibungen nachweisen; sie sind in der Regel von akuten, toxisch bedingten Veränderungen durch das Fehlen charakteristischer Schwann-Zellreaktionen zu differenzieren. Bei der INH-Neuropathie degenerieren anfangs im Verhältnis zu den markhaltigen nur wenige marklose Nervenfasern. Einige marklose Axone können unregelmäßig konturiert, geschwollen oder geschrumpft erscheinen; dabei lösen sich die Tubuli und Filamente auf; in manchen Fällen verdichtet sich ausch das Axolemm. Die Axonveränderungen werden von Störungen der normalen Axon-Schwann-Zellrelation begleitet. In den Anfangsstadien können manche Schwann-Zellen hochgradig deformiert sein; später verlieren sie ihre Oberflächendifferenzierung und runden sich (auf dem Querschnitt) ab. In der Regel zeigen die marklosen Nervenfasern bei der INH-Neuropathie die gleichen Veränderungen und Störungen der Axon-Schwann-Zellrelation wie bei der Wallerschen Degeneration. Extreme prolapsartige Verformungen von Axonen und Schwann-Zellen sowie mitochondriale Granula haben wir jedoch nur bei der INH-Neuropathie, nicht aber bei der Wallerschen Degeneration beobachtet.
    Notes: Summary In sciatic nerves of rats, there are more than twice as much unmyelinated than myelinated axons. Their ratio varies in a wide range from one area to the other. Some regressive changes are seen already in unmyelinated axons of normal controls (loss of structural components, axonal beading). Usually, these alterations can be distinguished from early experimental lesions by the lack of characteristic Schwann cell reactions. In the beginning of INH-neuropathy, fewer unmyelinated than myelinated nerve fibers are degenerating. Some of the unmyelinated axons may become irregularily folded, swollen, or shrunken while there is a progressive loss of tubules, filaments, normal mitochondria, and sometimes an increase in the thickness of the axolemma. The axonal changes are accompanied by a disturbance of the normal axon-Schwann cell relation. Initially, some Schwann cells may become extremely irregular; later they lose their surface differentiation while their cross sectional contour becomes rather rounded. In general, unmyelinated axons in INH-neuropathy show similar alterations and disturbances of the axon-Schwann cell relation as seen in Wallerian degeneration. Yet extremely deformed unmyelinated nerve fibers, axons as well as Schwann cells, and mitochondrial granules were only observed in INH-neuropathy.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 29 (1991), S. 1607-1612 
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: neutron scattering (SANS) from hot stretched polystyrene ; polystyrene, hot stretched, SANS study of ; chain deformation in hot stretched polystyrene, SANS study of ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to investigate macromolecular orientation of uniaxially hot-stretched partially deuterated polystyrene. Principle radii of gyration and degree of eccentricity were measured over a range of hot-stretch temperatures, strain rates, and external draw ratios (EDR). Results show affine deformation for EDR 〈4 and an increase in the degree of local molecular orientation with increasing rate of strain and decreasing stretching temperature. It also is found that although the macromolecules follow the external stretching affinely on average, they do not deform uniformly.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chemie Ingenieur Technik - CIT 60 (1988), S. 152-153 
    ISSN: 0009-286X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 39 (1998), S. 539-548 
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: cytokine delivery via covalent binding ; tissue repair ; biomaterials ; collagen ; transforming growth factor β ; polyethylene glycol ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: To overcome rapid diffusion and clearance from the implant site and to increase stability, recombinant transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) was covalently bound to injectable bovine dermal fibrillar collagen (FC) and its activity compared to admixed TGF-β2. Covalent binding was achieved in a two-step procedure: First, TGF-β2 was reacted with the difunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker, and then the PEG-attached TGF-β2 (PEG-TGF-β2) was bound to the fibrillar collagen (FC-PEG-TGF-β2). Initial binding of TGF-β2 to difunctional succinimidyl glutarate (D-SG-PEG) or succinimidyl propionate polyethylene glycol (D-SE-PEG) linkers was completed after reacting for 8 or 10 min as monitored by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. After reaction with injectable fibrillar collagen, extraction of unbound PEG-TGF-β2 and Western blot analysis, using a TGF-β specific antibody, demonstrated that at least 85% of the TGF-β2 was bound to the fibrillar collagen. The activity of PEG-TGF-β2 was fully stable in phosphate-buffered saline at 4°C and 37°C for at least up to 4 weeks. Unmodified TGF-β2 mixed with fibrillar collagen was completely inactivated after 1 week of incubation, as measured by the mink lung epithelial cell (Mv1Lu) growth inhibition assay. Formulations of FC-PEG-TGF-β2 containing 40 μg/mL TGF-β2 were implanted subcutaneously into rats and analyzed after days 7, 21, and 42. All TGF-β2-containing formulations showed the TGF-β typical fibroblastic response at the day 7 time point. Covalent binding of TGF-β2 to collagen with both difunctional PEG crosslinkers resulted in a significantly stronger and longer-lasting TGF-β2 response than that observed with admixed formulations of collagen and TGF-β. The TGF-β response with FC-PEG-TGF-β2 lasted up to day 42 but was not seen after day 7 for TGF-β2 admixed to FC. These findings clearly demonstrate that TGF-β2 remains fully active after being covalently bound to collagen via difunctional PEG. In addition, covalent binding potentiates and prolongs in vivo TGF-β responses and stabilizes the TGF-β in vitro. Results suggest that this method of formulation could be useful to stabilize and deliver similar peptide growth factors or biologically active agents. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 39, 539-548, 1998.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Polymer Science 47 (1960), S. 417-433 
    ISSN: 0022-3832
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Phosphorus trichloride and oxygen react readily with polyethylene to introduce phosphonic dichloride ( - POCl2) groups into the polymer (chlorophosphonation). Treatment of the resulting intermediate with water, alcohols, and amines yields polymeric alkylphosphonic acids, esters and amides, respectively. Derivatives containing as much as 16% phosphorus have been prepared. With increasing degree of phosphonation, polyethylene crystallinity is reduced, the acid and amide derivatives become stiffer, less extensible, and less soluble in nonpolar solvents, and internal plasticization is observed in the ester derivatives. No significant decrease in flammability is effected by phosphonation unless chlorine is introduced also. The ester and amide derivatives crosslink under mild conditions by an unknown mechanism, the acid derivative will crosslink on heating with litharge. The chlorophosphonation reaction is sensitive to inhibitors and no highly active catalyst was found. The rate appears to be governed by the rate at which oxygen dissolves in the mixture. Substitution of air or chlorine for oxygen, phenyldichlorophosphine or diphenylchlorophosphine for phosphorus trichloride results in introduction of phosphorus-containing groups into polyethylene, also, but at reduced rates. In sharp contrast to polyethylene's apparent stability toward the phosphonation conditions, polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), and polyisobutylene undergo a rapid decrease in molecular weight on treatment with phosphorus trichloride and oxygen. The fact that these four polymers exhibit the same relative behavior, i.e., polyethylene is stable whereas the other three polymers are unstable, in various free radical processes argues for a free radical mechanism in the chlorophosphonation reaction.
    Additional Material: 8 Tab.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Polymer Science 46 (1960), S. 547-550 
    ISSN: 0022-3832
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Letters Edition 13 (1975), S. 215-219 
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Polymer Science Part A-1: Polymer Chemistry 10 (1972), S. 2189-2195 
    ISSN: 0449-296X
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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