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  • Immunohistochemistry  (4)
  • Neuropathy  (4)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 78 (1989), S. 649-661 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Pyloric stenosis ; Myenteric plexus ; Smooth muscle ; Neuropathy ; Myopathic changes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The myenteric plexus and intramuscular nerve bundles in the circular muscle layer of the pylorus from 37 children with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) obtained at pyloromyotomy were studied by light and electron microscopy and compared to six control cases without clinical evidence of IHPS. In certain IHPS cases degenerative alterations of the axons predominated. The axonal changes consisted of (1) severely increased variability of diameters with evidence of degeneration and regeneration of some axons, (2) accumulation of electron-dense bodies, lysosomes and pleomorphic membranous cytoplasmic bodies, (3) increase in the number of maloriented neurofilaments, and (4) aggregation of glycogen granules. Degenerative changes or immaturity of perikarya of neurons and glial cells in the myenteric plexus were not a significant feature. While axonal changes predominated in some IHPS cases there were severe changes of smooth muscle cells in others suggesting that a primarily neurogenic type of IHPS can be distinguished from a predominantly myogenic type. Although the etiology of the axonal changes in IHPS is not clear, it is suggested that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of pyloric stenosis and hypertrophy.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Cytoplasmic body myopathy ; Immunohistochemistry ; Desmin ; Intermediate filaments ; Actin filaments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a fine structural and immunocytochemical study, the latter performed on semithin sections of epoxy resin embedded skeletal muscle fibers, three types of cytoplasmic bodies were identified in a case of cytoplasmic body myopathy: (1) The first type, the classical type, showed a central core and a light halo with radiating actin filaments at the periphery. (2) The second type, the spheroid body was characterized by irregularly arranged granular masses associated with intermediate filaments. Desmin immunoreactivity occurred in the central and peripheral parts, where filaments of intermediate size were visualized by electron microscopy. Desmin immunoreactivity was noted also at the Z-bands of striated annulets, within areas of disordered myofibrils, such as sarcoplasmic masses, and in atrophic muscle fibers. (3) The third type of the cytoplasmic body was composed mainly of large masses of uneven granularity and electron density. The center of this type reacted to anti-actin antibody suggesting that the 5- to 6-nm filaments, which ultrastructurally proved to be a major component, were of the actin type. By contrast, neither intermediate filaments nor actin microfilaments were found by electron microscopy in cytoplasmic bodies in a second case where no immunoreaction to desmin or actin occurred. Anti-vimentin antibody stained only the cytoplasm of endomysial cells, but not the inclusion bodies. Some other, unusual inclusions with 18- to 20-nm tubulo-filamentous structures have to be distinguished from the various types of filaments in cytoplasmic bodies. It is concluded, that pleomorphism and heterogeneity of “cytoplasmic bodies” have to be taken into consideration when classifying cytoplasmic body myopathies.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 80 (1990), S. 295-306 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Pyloric stenosis ; Smooth muscle ; Myenteric plexus ; Visceral myopathy ; Neuropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Smooth muscle cell biopsies obtained at pyloromyotomy from 37 children with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) were studied by light and electron microscopy and compared with 6 autopsy control cases without any clinical evidence of this disorder. In cases with IHPS an apparently irregular increase in the number of smooth muscle cells by mitosis was accompanied by an increase of the endoplasmic reticulum, proliferation of mitochondria and regressive changes, such as shrinkage, swelling, necrosis and apoptosis of smooth muscle cells. Other alterations, seen in some but not all cases consisted of large numbers of unusual dense granules some of which were clearly associated with actin filaments and, therefore, regarded as derivatives of the normally occurring dense bodies. Furthermore, intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen accumulations, various nuclear abnormalities and pleomorphic membranous cytoplasmic or nuclear bodies occurred. While smooth muscle cell abnormalities predominated in some cases of IHPS, in others there were more severe axonal changes in the myenteric plexus. It is suggested, therefore, that a primarily myogenic type of IHPS can be distinguished from a predominantly neurogenic type.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words: Perineurial cells ; Nerve regeneration ; Immunohistochemistry ; Epithelial membrane antigen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Perineurial cells are specialized connective tissue cells that form a barrier between endoneurium and epineurium in normal nerves. In the present study, the formation of the perineurium after transection of rat sciatic nerves was investigated. The cord bridging the gap between proximal and distal stumps through silicone tubes was studied 3, 7, 12, 18, and 21 days after surgery using electron microscopy and antibodies against epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), a marker for perineurial cells that has thus far not been applied to the study of differentiating cells in nerve tubulation systems. Initially, a thin cord consisting of fibrin bridged the gap between the stumps. At 7 days, longitudinal cells had migrated from both stumps toward the center of the tubes on the surface of the fibrin cord. These cells were immunoreactive with anti-EMA. At 12 days, ultrastructural features of perineurial cells (desmosomes, tight junctions, actin filaments with dense bodies, tonofilaments) were prominent in these cells. Subsequently, the gap was bridged through the perineurial tube by endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblasts, Schwann cells, and axons. At 21 days, a single large nerve fascicle ensheathed by a mature perineurium was found between the stumps. Thus, the first cells to connect proximal and distal stumps in the investigated nerve regeneration silicon chamber system are perineurial cells. Through the tube formed by these cells, blood vessels and nerve fibers bridge the gap. Therefore, establishment of a perineurial connection between nerve stumps appears to be important in the sequence of events during nerve regeneration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Perineurial cells ; Nerve regeneration ; Immunohistochemistry ; Epithelial membrane antigen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Perineurial cells are specialized connective tissue cells that form a barrier between endoneurium and epineurium in normal nerves. In the present study, the formation of the perineurium after transection of rat sciatic nerves was investigated. The cord bridging the gap between proximal and distal stumps through silicone tubes was studied 3, 7, 12, 18, and 21 days after surgery using electron microscopy and antibodies against epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), a marker for perineurial cells that has thus far not been applied to the study of differentiating cells in nerve tubulation systems. Initially, a thin cord consisting of fibrin bridged the gap between the stumps. At 7 days, longitudinal cells had migrated from both stumps toward the center of the tubes on the surface of the fibrin cord. These cells were immunoreactive with anti-EMA. At 12 days, ultrastructural features of perineurial cells (desmosomes, tight junctions, actin filaments with dense bodies, tonofilaments) were prominent in these cells. Subsequently, the gap was bridged through the perineurial tube by endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblasts, Schwann cells, and axons. At 21 days, a single large nerve fascicle ensheathed by a mature perineurium was found between the stumps. Thus, the first cells to connect proximal and distal stumps in the investigated nerve regeneration silicon chamber system are perineurial cells. Through the tube formed by these cells, blood vessels and nerve fibers bridge the gap. Therefore, establishment of a perineurial connection between nerve stumps appears to be important in the sequence of events during nerve regeneration.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 79 (1989), S. 190-199 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Amyloidosis ; Neuropathy ; Immuno-electron microscopy ; Immunoglobulin light chains ; Perpheral nerve
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sural nerve specimens from ten patients with amyloidosis (hereditary, associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, or of unknown origin) and peripheral neuropathy were investigated by immunohistochemistry at the light and electron microscopic level. Peroxidase-antiperoxidase and immunogold techniques were applied to glutaraldehyde-fixed, osmicated and epoxy-embedded tissue. In five cases, four of which associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, amyloid deposits strongly and exclusively reacted with antibodies to kappa or lambda light chains, respectively. By electron microscopy, bundles of immunogold-labelled amyloid fibrils could be identified in coated and uncoated single membrane-bound vesicles of endoneurial macrophages. Schwann cells did not contain intracellular amyloid but their processes were entangled in amyloid fibrils and their basement membranes were sometimes fused with the fibrillar masses. It is concluded that immunoglobulin light chains in AL (amyloid of immunoglobulin light chain origin) amyloidosis precipitate, forming amyloid fibrils, in the presence of, and presumably with the assistence of, endoneurial cells. Inefficiency of phagocytosis appears to be one of the major causes for the deleterious effects of amyloid.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 65 (1985), S. 285-292 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Thalidomide ; Neuropathy ; Conduction velocity ; Myelin sheath
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Morphological studies of experimental thalidomide neuropathy have thus far failed to show any significant structural changes. The present investigation was performed on sural nerves of female New Zealand white rabbits showing a reduction of sensory conduction velocity after oral treatment with thalidomide (100 mg/kg b.wt. per day) for a period of 33 weeks. Rabbits of the same strain and equal sex, weight, and number served as controls. Very few nerve fibers were undergoing Wallerian degeneration in both groups, experimental animals and controls. Morphometry, however, revealed a statistically significant reduction of the mean myelin thickness of sural nerve fibers in the thalidomide group of rabbits as compared to controls. The mean myelin thickness of the largest nerve fibers was also significantly smaller than in the control group. On the other hand, axonal diameters were not significantly altered. The association between the decrease of the sensory conduction velocity, the reduction of the myelin sheath thickness, and the chronic thalidomide application is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Mitochondrial myopathy ; Ragged-red fibres ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An immunohistochemical method is reported using the M-II68 monoclonal antibody, which detects mitochondrial accumulations (“ragged-red fibres”) in routinely processed (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) muscle tissue. Ten cases with electron-microscopically and histochemically proven mitochondrial myopathy featured 4% to 24% ragged-red fibres. In a series of 50 muscle biopsies without mitochondrial myopathy, scattered ragged-red fibres (〈0.1%) were present in a few normal and pathological muscles. The immunohistochemical method is specific for mitochondria, does not require frozen tissue and permits rapid examination of large areas.
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