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  • Immunohistochemistry  (4)
  • Schwann cells  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words     HLA-DR ; Neuropathies ; Macrophages ; Fibroblasts ; Schwann cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract      The expression of HLA-DR and the macrophage marker CD 68 was studied in 44 sural nerve biopsies from patients with inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies and controls using immunohistochemistry on non-osmicated semithin sections, a technique that has not been used before in such a biopsy study. Most HLA-DR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were fibroblasts, macrophages or perineurial cells, some were perivascular and endothelial cells, and only few were Schwann cells. Counts of immunoreactive cells revealed (a) increased HLA-DR expression in severe as compared to less severe neuropathies and to controls, (b) no correlation between the numbers of HLA-DR-ir cells and CD 68-ir macrophages, and (c) no close correlation between diagnostic groups and the number of HLA-DR-ir cells, but higher numbers in inflammatory neuropathies. We conclude that endoneurial fibroblasts and macrophages as antigen-presenting cells may be mediators in various peripheral nerve diseases, not only in inflammatory disorders.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Cytoplasmic body myopathy ; Immunohistochemistry ; Desmin ; Intermediate filaments ; Actin filaments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a fine structural and immunocytochemical study, the latter performed on semithin sections of epoxy resin embedded skeletal muscle fibers, three types of cytoplasmic bodies were identified in a case of cytoplasmic body myopathy: (1) The first type, the classical type, showed a central core and a light halo with radiating actin filaments at the periphery. (2) The second type, the spheroid body was characterized by irregularly arranged granular masses associated with intermediate filaments. Desmin immunoreactivity occurred in the central and peripheral parts, where filaments of intermediate size were visualized by electron microscopy. Desmin immunoreactivity was noted also at the Z-bands of striated annulets, within areas of disordered myofibrils, such as sarcoplasmic masses, and in atrophic muscle fibers. (3) The third type of the cytoplasmic body was composed mainly of large masses of uneven granularity and electron density. The center of this type reacted to anti-actin antibody suggesting that the 5- to 6-nm filaments, which ultrastructurally proved to be a major component, were of the actin type. By contrast, neither intermediate filaments nor actin microfilaments were found by electron microscopy in cytoplasmic bodies in a second case where no immunoreaction to desmin or actin occurred. Anti-vimentin antibody stained only the cytoplasm of endomysial cells, but not the inclusion bodies. Some other, unusual inclusions with 18- to 20-nm tubulo-filamentous structures have to be distinguished from the various types of filaments in cytoplasmic bodies. It is concluded, that pleomorphism and heterogeneity of “cytoplasmic bodies” have to be taken into consideration when classifying cytoplasmic body myopathies.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: HLA-DR ; Neuropathies ; Macrophages Fibroblasts ; Schwann cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The expression of HLA-DR and the macrophage marker CD 68 was studied in 44 sural nerve biopsies from patients with inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies and controls using immunohistochemistry on non-osmicated semithin sections, a technique that has not been used before in such a biopsy study. Most HLA-DR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were fibroblasts, macrophages on perineurial cells, some were perivascular and endothelial cells, and only few were Schwann cells. Counts of immunoreactive cells revealed (a) increased HLA-DR expression in severe as compared to less severe neuropathies and to controls, (b) no correlation between the numbers of HLA-DR-ir cells and CD 68-ir macrophages, and (c) no close correlation between diagnostic groups and the number of HLA-DR-ir cells, but higher numbers in inflammatory neuropathies. We conclude that endoneurial fibroblasts and macrophages as antigen-presenting cells may be mediators in various peripheral nerve diseases, not only in inflammatory disorders.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words: Perineurial cells ; Nerve regeneration ; Immunohistochemistry ; Epithelial membrane antigen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Perineurial cells are specialized connective tissue cells that form a barrier between endoneurium and epineurium in normal nerves. In the present study, the formation of the perineurium after transection of rat sciatic nerves was investigated. The cord bridging the gap between proximal and distal stumps through silicone tubes was studied 3, 7, 12, 18, and 21 days after surgery using electron microscopy and antibodies against epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), a marker for perineurial cells that has thus far not been applied to the study of differentiating cells in nerve tubulation systems. Initially, a thin cord consisting of fibrin bridged the gap between the stumps. At 7 days, longitudinal cells had migrated from both stumps toward the center of the tubes on the surface of the fibrin cord. These cells were immunoreactive with anti-EMA. At 12 days, ultrastructural features of perineurial cells (desmosomes, tight junctions, actin filaments with dense bodies, tonofilaments) were prominent in these cells. Subsequently, the gap was bridged through the perineurial tube by endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblasts, Schwann cells, and axons. At 21 days, a single large nerve fascicle ensheathed by a mature perineurium was found between the stumps. Thus, the first cells to connect proximal and distal stumps in the investigated nerve regeneration silicon chamber system are perineurial cells. Through the tube formed by these cells, blood vessels and nerve fibers bridge the gap. Therefore, establishment of a perineurial connection between nerve stumps appears to be important in the sequence of events during nerve regeneration.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Perineurial cells ; Nerve regeneration ; Immunohistochemistry ; Epithelial membrane antigen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Perineurial cells are specialized connective tissue cells that form a barrier between endoneurium and epineurium in normal nerves. In the present study, the formation of the perineurium after transection of rat sciatic nerves was investigated. The cord bridging the gap between proximal and distal stumps through silicone tubes was studied 3, 7, 12, 18, and 21 days after surgery using electron microscopy and antibodies against epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), a marker for perineurial cells that has thus far not been applied to the study of differentiating cells in nerve tubulation systems. Initially, a thin cord consisting of fibrin bridged the gap between the stumps. At 7 days, longitudinal cells had migrated from both stumps toward the center of the tubes on the surface of the fibrin cord. These cells were immunoreactive with anti-EMA. At 12 days, ultrastructural features of perineurial cells (desmosomes, tight junctions, actin filaments with dense bodies, tonofilaments) were prominent in these cells. Subsequently, the gap was bridged through the perineurial tube by endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblasts, Schwann cells, and axons. At 21 days, a single large nerve fascicle ensheathed by a mature perineurium was found between the stumps. Thus, the first cells to connect proximal and distal stumps in the investigated nerve regeneration silicon chamber system are perineurial cells. Through the tube formed by these cells, blood vessels and nerve fibers bridge the gap. Therefore, establishment of a perineurial connection between nerve stumps appears to be important in the sequence of events during nerve regeneration.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Mitochondrial myopathies ; Peripheral neuropathy ; Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy ; Schwann cells ; Arterioles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifteen cases of mitochondrial myopathy, three cases of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) VI, and 280 cases of neuropathies of different etiologies were examined by electron microscopy for the presence of mitochondrial abnormalities in the sural nerve. Altered mitochondria were found in most cases of mitochondrial myopathy, in all cases of HMSN VI, and in 25 cases out of the series of unselected neuropathies. The mitochondrial changes comprised enlargement with an amorphous matrix and distorted cristae, with hexagonal paracrystalline inclusions, and with prominent cristae containing oblique striations, and a variety of rare changes. Most mitochondrial abnormalities were found in Schwann cells. An increase of the number of mitochondria was noted in smooth muscle and endothelial cells of epineurial arterioles of two cases with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Neuropathy was present in all cases of mitochondrial myopathy according to morphometrical analysis. Whether neuropathy is caused directly by mitochondrial dysfunction or by other pathogenetic mechanisms remains to be determined.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Mitochondrial myopathy ; Ragged-red fibres ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An immunohistochemical method is reported using the M-II68 monoclonal antibody, which detects mitochondrial accumulations (“ragged-red fibres”) in routinely processed (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) muscle tissue. Ten cases with electron-microscopically and histochemically proven mitochondrial myopathy featured 4% to 24% ragged-red fibres. In a series of 50 muscle biopsies without mitochondrial myopathy, scattered ragged-red fibres (〈0.1%) were present in a few normal and pathological muscles. The immunohistochemical method is specific for mitochondria, does not require frozen tissue and permits rapid examination of large areas.
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