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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words B-50(GAP-43) ; Spinal cord ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract B-50(GAP-43) is a phosphoprotein mainly found in the nervous system which plays a major role in neurite growth during development and regeneration as well as in synaptic remodelling. In the mature intact central nervous system, intense B-50 immunoreactivity (B-50-IR) can still be detected in regions which maintain residual capacity for structural re-organization. B-50 expression has been studied extensively in laboratory animals; however, its distribution and regulation in the human spinal cord is largely unknown. As a first step to analyze lesion-induced structural alterations, we investigated the distribution of B-50 protein and mRNA in the normal adult human spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. Intense B-50-IR was localized to the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn at all segmental levels, the intermediolateral nucleus at thoracic levels and Onuf’s nucleus at sacral levels. Scattered neurons, particularly in the ventral horn of lumbar and sacral segmental levels (and occasionally also in Clarke’s nucleus) displayed intense B-50-IR in close apposition to the perikaryal and proximal dendritic surfaces. Nonradioactive in situ hybridization indicated that B-50 mRNA could also be detected in neurons of the ventral horn and also in the intermediolateral nucleus. The distribution of B-50 mRNA and protein in the normal human spinal cord shows a marked similarity to that reported in experimental animals, including the selective labelling of Onuf’s nucleus. However, the strong B-50-IR on the surface of some large anterior horn motor neurons has not been observed in other mammals. This finding might reflect a particular state of readiness for synaptic plasticity.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Schwann cell inclusions ; Demyelination ; Myelinated nerve fibers ; Morphometry ; Peripheral ; neuropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the cytoplasm of Schwann cells of a sural nerve biopsy from a 21-year-old female patient with chronic neuropathy we noted numerous unique, usually double membrane-bound, osmiophilic, granular or globular inclusions, approximately 30–600 μm in diameter. Some of these membrane-bound vesicular or tubular structures contained less dense or no osmiophilic inclusions. Morphometry revealed a reduction of the myelin area per endoneural area to approximately 13% (normal value: 20– 30%) and of the density of myelinated nerve fibers to 5,412/mm2 (normal value at this age: 6,000–9,000/mm2). Large myelinated nerve fibers were predominantly reduced in number, and no myelinated nerve fibers with diameters larger than 4.5 μm were seen. Numerous, usually small onion bulb formations indicated a predominantly demyelinating type of neuropathy. This is to the best of our knowledge the first case of a chronic demyelinating neuropathy in which this kind of presumably pathognostic deposits in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells was detected.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 14 (1970), S. 261-283 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Allergic Neuritis ; Electron Microscopy ; Mononuclear Cells ; Demyelination ; Remyelination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Kaninchen mit einer experimentell-allergischen Neuritis (EAN) wurden 8 Tage bis 4 Monate nach der Injektion einer Emulsion aus heterologem Nervengewebe mit Freundschem Adjuvans phasenkontrast- und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Im akuten Stadium der Demyelinisation ist eine Beteiligung von mononucleären Infiltratzellen am Vorgang der Entmarkung peripherer Nervenfasern in der gleichen Weise nachweisbar, wie es Lampert (1969) bei der EAN von Ratten dargestellt hat. Da die Markscheidenschäden jedoch nicht immer in unmittelbarem Kontakt mit den Infiltratzellen auftreten, sind humorale Faktoren, die möglicherweise von den Infiltratzellen ausgeschieden werden, als Ursache der Markscheidenschäden nicht mit Sicherheit auszuschließen. Der weitere Abbau der geschädigten Markscheiden findet dann sowohl in den zu Makrophagen transformierten Infiltratzellen als auch in den proliferierenden Schwann-Zellen statt. Ausnahmsweise dominieren unter den Infiltratzellen auch bei der einfachen experimentell-allergischen Neuritis neutrophile Leukocyteninfiltrate; sie kommen in Zusammenhang mit anderen Zeichen einer schweren Störung der Gefäßnervenschranke wie Erythrodiapedesen und Fibrinexsudaten im fortgeschrittenen Stadium der Gewebsschädigung vor. Auf Axonläsionen und die im Ausheilungsstadium der EAN vorkommenden Zwiebelschalenformationen sowie die wiederholt beobachteten Gruppen regenerierter, von einer gemeinsamen Basalmembran gebündelter Nervenfasern wird kurz hingewiesen.
    Notes: Summary Rabbits with experimental allergic neuritis (EAN), induced by intradermally injected emulsified heterologous antigen together with Freund's adjuvant, were investigated by phase and electron microscopy 8 days to 4 months after the injection. Early lesions of the myelin sheaths in EAN can be demonstrated to occur in close contact with infiltrated mononuclear cells as has been reported by Lampert (1969) in rats. Yet since myelin lesions are not always restricted to areas of immediate contact with infiltrated mononuclear cells, it cannot be excluded that humoral factors, possibly excreted by the infiltrated cells, may initiate the myelin lesions. Further breakdown of myelin sheaths takes place in proliferating Schwann cells as well as in infiltrated mononuclear cells. Occasionally, neutrophilic leucocytes predominate among the cellular infiltrates. They occur together with erythrodiapedesis, and fibrinous exsudates in areas of severance of the blood-nerve barrier. Axonal lesions, and during remyelination, “onion bulb” formation were also seen as a sequence of the demyelinating lesions. Also, bundles of small regenerated nerve fibers enclosed by a single basement membrane were repeatedly observed in areas with remyelinated nerve fibers.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Ethylene oxide ; Peripheral neuropathy ; Morphometry ; Electron microscopy ; Demyelination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A case is reported of ethylene oxide polyneuropathy after 5 months of exposure. There was symmetrical distal weakness of both lower extremities and transitory reduced nerve conduction velocities with increased latencies. Sural nerve biopsy revealed nerve fibre degeneration of the Wallerian type, associated with reduction of axonal cross-sectional areas and some degree of nerve fibre regeneration that could be confirmed morphometrically. In addition, there was conspicuous paranodal vesicular disintegration of individual myelin lamellae. Unusual cisternae with introverted hemidesmosomes were noted in endoneurial fibroblasts.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 290 (1997), S. 31-37 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Sural nerve ; Blood vessels ; Angiopathic neuropathy ; Vasculitis ; Peripheral neuropathy ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The number and dimensions of epineurial blood vessels in normal human sural nerves have, thus far, not been determined using systematic, reproducible morphometric methods, although this nerve is most frequently used for diagnostic biopsies. Quantitative changes in epineurial blood vessels appear to be major parameters for identifying angiopathy and angiopathic peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, we examined the epineurial blood-vessel number in relation to the age of the patients and to the number and size of the nerve fascicles in each of 51 human sural nerve biopsies. The data from a control group were compared with pathological cases. We found that the number of epineurial blood vessels (normal mean: 57.7) increased significantly (up to 196) in biopsies where there were signs of angiopathy (P≤0.01) or vasculitis (P≤0.05). The increase in the number of epineurial blood vessels usually resulted from a proliferation of capillaries. The fascicular cross-sectional area did not appear to be related to the number of epineurial blood vessels, although it increased significantly in cases with vasculitis (P≤0.05) or an axonal type of neuropathy (P≤0.05). Thus, this study shows that the number of epineurial blood vessels is a helpful parameter in verifying angiopathy and angiopathic peripheral neuropathy.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 273 (1993), S. 499-509 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ranvier's node ; Development ; Sural nerve ; Axon ; Myelin sheath ; Paranodal junctions ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Developmental alterations of paranodal fiber segments have not been investigated systematically in human nerve fibers at the light- and electron-microscopic level. We have therefore analyzed developmental changes in the fine structure of the paranode in 43 human sural nerves during the axonal growth period up to 5 years of age, and during the subsequent myelin development up to 20 years and thereafter. The nodal, internodal, and paranodal axon diameters reach their adult values at 4–5 years of age. The ratio between internodal and paranodal axon diameters remains constant at 1.8–2.0. Despite a considerable increase in myelin sheath thickness, the length of the paranodal myelin sheath attachment zone at the axon does not increase correspondingly, because of attenuation, separation from the axolemma, and piling up of myelin loops in the paranode. Separation of variable numbers of terminal myelin loops from the underlying axolemma results in the formation of bracelets of Nageotte, whereas the transverse bands of these loops disappear. The adaptation of the paranodal myelin sheath to axonal expansion during development probably occurs by uneven gliding of the paranodal myelin loops simultaneously with internodal slippage of myelin lamellae. Since mechanically stabilizing structures (tight junctions and desmosomes between adjacent paranodal myelin processes; transverse bands between myelin loops and paranodal axolemma) are unevenly arranged, especially during rapid axonal growth, paranodal axonal growth with simultaneous adaptation of the myelin sheath is probably discontinuous with time.
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