GLORIA

GEOMAR Library Ocean Research Information Access

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Mitochondria  (5)
  • Electron microscopy  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Zidovudine ; Myopathy ; Nucleus ; Mitochondria ; AIDS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Long-term zidovudine (also termed azidothymidine, AZT) treatment of AIDS patients may cause severe myopathy characterized by conspicuous mitochondrial and nuclear changes. The mitochondrial changes are attributed to an inhibitory effect of AZT on the mitochondrial γ-polymerase in a variety of cells. Inhibition of the nuclear α-polymerase is another well-known side effect of AZT, whereas the (nuclear) β-polymerase appears to be rather insensitive. The nuclear changes seen in AIDS patients are usually considered secondary to the human immunodeficiency virus infection. To eliminate the influence of the virus on the nuclei, we studied the effect of AZT on non-infected, organotypic co-cultures of spinal ganglia, spinal cord, and skeletal muscle from fetal rats. We noted significant changes not only in the mitochondria but also in the nuclei of spinal ganglia, spinal cord, and muscle cells, which depended more on the duration of AZT application (1, 3, 5, and 8 days) than on the concentration (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μM). The alterations of the mitochondria consisted mainly of swelling, loss of cristae and, finally, disappearance. The nuclei showed nucleolar segregation, marginal condensation of heterochromatin, formation of interchromatin and perichromatin granules, nuclear protrusions and pseudoinclusions and, finally, disintegration. The changes were not as pleomorphic as those seen in biopsy specimens from AIDS patients who had received long-term treatment with AZT. However, this difference can easily be attributed to the short duration of drug application in tissue culture compared to the long-term medication in patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Zidovudine ; Myopathy ; Nucleus ; Mitochondria ; AIDS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Zidovudine (formerly azidothymidine) is a potent inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase and represents the first approved drug showing clinical efficacy in HIV-associated diseases. However, considerable toxicity causing macrocytic anemia, neutropenia, and myopathy has been reported, with severe mitochondrial alterations as a special feature of this myopathy. The mitochondrial changes are consistent with the fact that zidovudine acts as an inhibitor of the mitochondrial gamma-polymerase. Electron microscopically, we could confirm the presence of severely altered mitochondria in a 32-year-old male, who developed a necrotizing myopathy after daily administration of 1,000 mg zidovudine over a period of 15 months. In addition, there were even more severe nuclear changes that, for the most part, have not been documented electron microscopically in HIV-related myopathy either with or without zidovudine treatment, especially in non-necrotic and non-regenerating fibers. Since various in vitro studies have shown interference of zidovudine with nuclear DNA metabolism even in human cell lines, we assume that the nuclear changes that we observed are at least in part related to zidovudine treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 99 (2000), S. 39-47 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Sural nerve ; Muscle fiber diameter ; Morphometry ; Electron microscopy ; Myotonic ¶dystrophy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We compared peripheral nerve fibers and muscle fibers in myotonic dystrophy (MD) using a computer-assisted device for morphometry. In the 17 cases with MD studied, the sural nerves of 14 cases (82%) showed various degrees of reduction of the myelin sheath area (MSA) per endoneurial area. Of these, 8 cases (47%) presented with a mild reduction of the MSA, 5 cases (29.4%) with moderate reduction, and one case (6%) with severe reduction. The number of myelinated nerve fibers was not significantly reduced in MD when compared with control nerves, due to clusters of small regenerated nerve fibers. The mean diameter of the muscle fibers in 6 of the 17 cases was less than 40 μm. Of these 6 severely affected cases, ¶5 revealed a considerable reduction of the MSA. Other cases, which appeared to be normal in respect to the diameter of muscle fibers, showed various degrees of reduction of the MSA. Thus, there is usually, but not always a morphometric correlation of the severity of changes between peripheral nerves and muscle. The severity of the peripheral neuropathy appears to depend largely on the patient’s age, the stage of the disorder, and the time of progression. Electron microscopic examination of sural nerves showed significant, though non-specific pathological changes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Muscle spindle ; Denervation ; Reinnervation ; Muscle fiber atrophy ; Mitochondria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fine structure of normal, denervated, and reinnervated muscle spindles in lower lumbrical muscles of rats was studied morphometrically at time intervals ranging from 3–14 months. In control spindles, the mean transverse area of mitochondria was estimated to be more than twice as large in nuclear chain than in typical nuclear bag fibers. Following denervation, there was a severe decrease of the mean number and transverse area of mitochondria, and a moderate, but statistically significant decrease of the mean transverse area of intrafusal muscle fibers (IMFs) despite an increase of the number of IMFs. At 12–14 months of reinnervation, changes of the transverse areas of IMFs were statistically insignificant, but the mean values for the mitochondria were incompletely restored. At 4×3 months, after fourfold repeated crush injuries to the nerve, most of the values estimated (transverse area of mitochondria; number, shape, and transverse area of IMFs and nuclei) tended to approach those in denervated rather than in reinnervated IMFs. The differences of the reactions of intra- and extrafusal muscle fibers following complete motor and sensory denervation appeared to be in accordance with their normal dimensional dissimilarities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 16 (1970), S. 324-341 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Spinal Cord ; Spinal Ganglia ; Neuromuscular Spindles ; Mitochondria ; Isoniazid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Entgegen anderslautender Angaben in der Literatur werden bei der INH-Neuropathie auch die sensorischen Nervenendigungen in den Muskelspindeln betroffen. Die Veränderungen bestehen in einem Verlust der synaptischen Vesikel, in Mitochondrienschwellungen und-Verdichtungserscheinungen, in terminalen Axonfragmentationen und Reaktionen der zugehörigen intrafusalen Muskelfasern. Außerdem lassen sich schon in frühesten Stadium der INH-Neuropathie, am 4. Tag nach Beginn der INH-Applikation, Veränderungen in den lumbosacralen Spinalganglien und im Rückenmark nachweisen. Die Veränderungen in den Perikaryen gleichen denen bei der retrograden Zellveränderung weitgehend. Über die Spezifität der Alterationen an den sensorischen Nervenendigungen ist vorest keine sichere Aussage möglich, da vergleichbare Untersuchungen über pathologisch veränderte Muskelspindeln, insbesondere nach der einfachen Durchschneidung des Nerven, bisher fehlen.
    Notes: Summary In INH-neuropathy sensory nerve endings of distal muscle spindles may be severely altered. The changes are characterized by a disappearance of synaptic vesicles, mitochondrial swelling or condensation, fragmentation of axon terminals and reactions of the corresponding intrafusal muscle fibers. Also, occasional alterations in lumbosacral spinal ganglia and spinal cord were seen occurring already in the initial stage of INH-neuropathy at the 4th day after the beginning of INH application. The perikaryal changes resemble those of the retrograde cell reaction. Any specificness of the alterations seen in the sensory endings of muscle spindles cannot be ruled out at the present time since there are no comparable fine structural studies of pathological alterations in muscle spindles after simple nerve section or other nerve lesions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 10 (1968), S. 218-241 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Myotonic dystrophy ; Sarcoplasmic masses ; Striated annulets (Ringbinden) ; Muscle fiber ; Electron microscopy ; Phase microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Biopsiematerial von drei Patienten mit unterschiedlichen klinischen und pathologischen Stadien der myotonischen Dystrophie wurde phasenkontrast-und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Beim 1. und 2. Fall waren “sarkoplasmatische Massen” und “Ringbinden” besonders zahlreich, während sie beim 3. Fall mit klinisch erheblich fortgeschrittener Muskelatrophie nur ausnahmsweise vorkamen. Elektronenmikroskopisch erschienen fast alle Elemente der Muskelfasern, zumindest an einigen Stellen, von dem atrophischen oder dystrophischen Prozeß betroffen: Myofilamente, Z-Streifen, Triaden, Kerne, Mitochondrien und Sarkolemm. Außerdem fanden sich cytoplasmatische Cysten, multilamellierte Körperchen, zahlreiche Lipofuscingranula und verschiedene andere abnorme Strukturen. Besonders kennzeichnend für die Erkrankung waren die “sarkoplasmatischen Massen”, die mit variablen Mengen von fehlorientierten Myofilamenten, aber auch von anderen Komponenten der Muskelzelle ausgefüllt waren. Die Ringbinden wurden von fehlorientierten Myofibrillen gebildet, indem sie meist kreisförmig die im Zentrum normal ausgerichteten Myofibrillen umschlossen. Einzelne Veränderungen, die bisher weder bei der myotonischen Dystrophie noch in irgendeiner anderen Muskelkrankheit nachgewiesen worden sind, konnten in leicht dystrophischen wie auch in hochgradig atrophischen Fasern nachgewiesen und identifiziert werden: Große homogene Lacunen, die sich vom sarkoplasmatischen Reticulum herleiten und eigenartige geometrische Anordnungen der terminalen Cisternen. Der Ursprung bestimmter anderer Strukturen blieb unklar. In unserem Material fanden sich keine segmentalen Nekrosen, so daß sich die Relation des dystrophischen Prozesses zur Zenkerschen Degeneration und zur Atrophie, den nach histologischen Untersuchungen wesentlichsten Befunden bei der Steinertschen Erkrankung, nicht eindeutig bestimmen ließ.
    Notes: Summary Biopsies from three patients with different clinical and pathological stages of myotonic dystrophy were studied by phase and electron microscopy. Large sarcoplasmic masses and spiral annulets were prominent in Cases 1 and 2 while in Case 3, featured clinically by atrophic weakness, they were infrequent. In the latter the residual fibers were either large and dystrophic or small and atrophic. Electron microscopically, nearly all components of the muscle cell, in places, were involved in the dystrophic or atrophic process, such as myofilaments, Z discs, triads, nucleic, mitochondria, and the sarcolemma. In addition, cytoplasmic cysts, multilammellated bodies, and lipofuscin granules were observed. The most characteristic feature of the disease were sarcoplasmic masses, filled with varying amounts of disoriented myofilaments and other sarcoplasmic components. Disoriented myofibrils often encircled the remaining core of normal myofibrils, thus forming the striated annulets (Ringbinden). Several other abnormalities, not previously reported in myotonic dystrophy or any other myopathy, were identified in slightly dystrophic as well as in severaly atrophic fibers. These were large, homogenous lacunes derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and peculiar geometric arrangements of terminal cisternae. The origin of some other structures remains obscure. The relation of the dystrophic process to segmental degeneration and atrophy, the principal histologic findings in Steinert's disease, is unsettled since segmental necrosis was not observed in our samples for phase and electron microscopy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 15 (1970), S. 156-175 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Peripheral Nerve ; Nerve Degeneration ; Axon ; Mitochondria ; Isoniazid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im N. ischiadicus der Ratte kommen etwa doppelt so viele marklose als markhaltige Nervenfasern vor. Das normale zahlenmäßige Verhältnis dieser beiden Fasertypen schwankt in weiten Grenzen. Schon im ungeschädigten Nerven lassen sich bereits an einzelnen marklosen Nervenfasern verschiedenartige regressive Veränderungen wie Strukturverlust und perlschnurförmige Auftreibungen nachweisen; sie sind in der Regel von akuten, toxisch bedingten Veränderungen durch das Fehlen charakteristischer Schwann-Zellreaktionen zu differenzieren. Bei der INH-Neuropathie degenerieren anfangs im Verhältnis zu den markhaltigen nur wenige marklose Nervenfasern. Einige marklose Axone können unregelmäßig konturiert, geschwollen oder geschrumpft erscheinen; dabei lösen sich die Tubuli und Filamente auf; in manchen Fällen verdichtet sich ausch das Axolemm. Die Axonveränderungen werden von Störungen der normalen Axon-Schwann-Zellrelation begleitet. In den Anfangsstadien können manche Schwann-Zellen hochgradig deformiert sein; später verlieren sie ihre Oberflächendifferenzierung und runden sich (auf dem Querschnitt) ab. In der Regel zeigen die marklosen Nervenfasern bei der INH-Neuropathie die gleichen Veränderungen und Störungen der Axon-Schwann-Zellrelation wie bei der Wallerschen Degeneration. Extreme prolapsartige Verformungen von Axonen und Schwann-Zellen sowie mitochondriale Granula haben wir jedoch nur bei der INH-Neuropathie, nicht aber bei der Wallerschen Degeneration beobachtet.
    Notes: Summary In sciatic nerves of rats, there are more than twice as much unmyelinated than myelinated axons. Their ratio varies in a wide range from one area to the other. Some regressive changes are seen already in unmyelinated axons of normal controls (loss of structural components, axonal beading). Usually, these alterations can be distinguished from early experimental lesions by the lack of characteristic Schwann cell reactions. In the beginning of INH-neuropathy, fewer unmyelinated than myelinated nerve fibers are degenerating. Some of the unmyelinated axons may become irregularily folded, swollen, or shrunken while there is a progressive loss of tubules, filaments, normal mitochondria, and sometimes an increase in the thickness of the axolemma. The axonal changes are accompanied by a disturbance of the normal axon-Schwann cell relation. Initially, some Schwann cells may become extremely irregular; later they lose their surface differentiation while their cross sectional contour becomes rather rounded. In general, unmyelinated axons in INH-neuropathy show similar alterations and disturbances of the axon-Schwann cell relation as seen in Wallerian degeneration. Yet extremely deformed unmyelinated nerve fibers, axons as well as Schwann cells, and mitochondrial granules were only observed in INH-neuropathy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Ethylene oxide ; Peripheral neuropathy ; Morphometry ; Electron microscopy ; Demyelination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A case is reported of ethylene oxide polyneuropathy after 5 months of exposure. There was symmetrical distal weakness of both lower extremities and transitory reduced nerve conduction velocities with increased latencies. Sural nerve biopsy revealed nerve fibre degeneration of the Wallerian type, associated with reduction of axonal cross-sectional areas and some degree of nerve fibre regeneration that could be confirmed morphometrically. In addition, there was conspicuous paranodal vesicular disintegration of individual myelin lamellae. Unusual cisternae with introverted hemidesmosomes were noted in endoneurial fibroblasts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 128 (1972), S. 393-405 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Peripheral nerve ; Polyamines ; Autoradiography ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Mit Hilfe der Autoradiographie von Semi- und Ultradünnschnitten wurde die Verteilung der Radioaktivität nach Applikation von 3H-Putrescin im intakten und im degenerierenden N. ischiadicus der Ratte sowie in Spinalganglien untersucht. Im intakten und im geschädigten Nerven war die Radioaktivität, die zum weit überwiegenden Anteil als Spermidin und Putrescin vorkam, in allen zellulären Bestandteilen des Nerven, im Cytoplasma, in den Kernen und sehr deutlich auch in den Markscheiden, lokalisiert. Im extrazellulären Raum und über den Kollagenfibrillen war demgegenüber nur eine sehr geringe Radioaktivität festzustellen. Die physiologische Funktion von Spermidin und Putrescin im Myelin und den anderen Zellbestandteilen wird in erster Linie im Zusammenhang mit der in diesen Strukturen ebenfalls lokalisierten RNA diskutiert, da zahlreiche Hinweise für eine Rolle der Polyamine in der RNA- und Proteinsynthese vorliegen.
    Notes: Summary The distribution of radioactivity from 3H-putrescine was studied in intact and degenerated sciatic nerves, and spinal ganglia of rats by means of high resolution autoradiography. During the first three days after the administration of the labeled putrescine, the main proportion of radioactive material in the nerves was represented by spermidine and putrescine. Both, in intact and degenerating nerves, developed silver grains were deposited in all cellular components of the nervous tissue, the myelin sheath being markedly tagged. Perineural tissue was also labeled considerably, however, there was no significant amount of label in the extracellular space and in the collagen fibrils. The possible physiological significance of putrescine and spermidine in myelin and in other cellular components of nerves is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...