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  • The American Society for Microbiology (ASM)  (4)
  • The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET)  (1)
Document type
Publisher
  • The American Society for Microbiology (ASM)  (4)
  • The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET)  (1)
  • Springer  (6)
  • Elsevier  (2)
Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-10-04
    Description: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic stability and growth characteristics of MVA-MERS-S make it a suitable candidate vaccine for clinical testing. Vaccinated mice produced high levels of serum antibodies neutralizing MERS-CoV. Thus, MVA-MERS-S may serve for further development of an emergency vaccine against MERS-CoV.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-10-29
    Description: Due to antigenic drift of influenza viruses, seasonal influenza vaccines need to be updated annually. These vaccines are based on predictions of strains likely to circulate in the next season. However, vaccine efficacy is greatly reduced in the case of a mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains. Furthermore, novel antigenically distinct influenza viruses are introduced into the human population from animal reservoirs occasionally and may cause pandemic outbreaks. To dampen the impact of seasonal and pandemic influenza, vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immunity are preferred. Because influenza virus-specific CD8 + T cells are directed mainly against relatively conserved internal proteins, like nucleoprotein (NP), they are highly cross-reactive and afford protection against infection with antigenically distinct influenza virus strains, so-called heterosubtypic immunity. Here, we used modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vaccine vector for the induction of influenza virus NP-specific CD8 + T cells. To optimize the induction of CD8 + T cell responses, we made several modifications to NP, aiming at retaining the protein in the cytosol or targeting it to the proteasome. We hypothesized that these strategies would increase antigen processing and presentation and thus improve the induction of CD8 + T cell responses. We showed that NP with increased degradation rates improved CD8 + T cell activation in vitro if the amount of antigen was limited or if CD8 + T cells were of low functional avidity. However, after immunization of C57BL/6 mice, no differences were detected between modified NP and wild-type NP (NPwt), since NPwt already induced optimal CD8 + T cell responses. IMPORTANCE Due to the continuous antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the threat of a novel pandemic, there is a great need for the development of novel influenza vaccines that offer broadly protective immunity against multiple subtypes. CD8 + T cells can provide immunity against multiple subtypes of influenza viruses by the recognition of relatively conserved internal antigens. In this study, we aimed at optimizing the CD8 + T cell response to influenza A virus by making modifications to influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) expressed from the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine vector. These modifications resulted in increased antigen degradation, thereby producing elevated levels of peptides that can be presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to CD8 + T cells. Although we were unable to increase the NP-specific immune response in the mouse strain used, this approach may have benefits for vaccine development using less-immunogenic proteins.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-08-20
    Description: Immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) can rapidly protect mice against lethal ectromelia virus (ECTV) infection, serving as an experimental model for severe systemic infections. Importantly, this early protective capacity of MVA vaccination completely depends on virus-specific cytotoxic CD8 + T cell responses. We used MVA vaccination in the mousepox challenge model using ECTV infection to investigate the previously unknown factors required to elicit rapid protective T cell immunity in normal C57BL/6 mice and in mice lacking the interferon alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR –/– ). We found a minimal dose of 10 5 PFU of MVA vaccine fully sufficient to allow robust protection against lethal mousepox, as assessed by the absence of disease symptoms and failure to detect ECTV in organs from vaccinated animals. Moreover, MVA immunization at low dosage also protected IFNAR –/– mice, indicating efficient activation of cellular immunity even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. When monitoring for virus-specific CD8 + T cell responses in mice vaccinated with the minimal protective dose of MVA, we found significantly enhanced levels of antigen-specific T cells in animals that were MVA vaccinated and ECTV challenged compared to mice that were only vaccinated. The initial priming of naive CD8 + T cells by MVA immunization appears to be highly efficient and, even at low doses, mediates a rapid in vivo burst of pathogen-specific T cells upon challenge. Our findings define striking requirements for protective emergency immunization against severe systemic infections with orthopoxviruses. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that single-shot low-dose immunizations with vaccinia virus MVA can rapidly induce T cell-mediated protective immunity against lethal orthopoxvirus infections. Our data provide new evidence for an efficient protective capacity of vaccination with replication-deficient MVA. These data are of important practical relevance for public health, as the effectiveness of a safety-tested, next-generation smallpox vaccine based on MVA is still debated. Furthermore, producing sufficient amounts of vaccine is expected to be a major challenge should an outbreak occur. Moreover, prevention of other infections may require rapidly protective immunization; hence, MVA could be an extremely useful vaccine for delivering heterologous T cell antigens, particularly for infectious diseases that fit a scenario of emergency vaccination.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-01-02
    Description: Dabigatran etexilate, a double prodrug of dabigatran, is a reversible, competitive, direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved for use in many countries. A recent guideline from the European Medicines Agency on drug-drug interactions proposed dabigatran etexilate as a sensitive in vivo and in vitro probe substrate for intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition. We therefore performed a series of in vitro studies to determine the best experimental conditions for evaluation of P-gp involvement on the transport process of dabigatran etexilate across colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell monolayers. Experiments using expressed carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and CES2 bactosomes revealed that dabigatran etexilate was hydrolyzed into BIBR 1087 by CES1 expressed in our Caco-2 cells. The impact of CES1-mediated BIBR 1087 formation during transcellular transport experiments was assessed by comparing several combinations of three experimental approaches: radioactivity detection using [ 14 C]dabigatran etexilate as substrate, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification of dabigatran etexilate, and in the presence and absence of a CES inhibitor bis( p -nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP). The experimental approach that was based on the use of nonlabeled dabigatran etexilate together with LC-MS/MS quantification and the addition of BNPP was selected as the most favorable condition in which to correctly evaluate the permeability coefficient (Papp) of dabigatran etexilate and its transcellular transport by P-gp. The in vitro Caco-2 study at the selected condition revealed that dabigatran etexilate is a P-gp substrate with an efflux ratio of 13.8 and an intrinsic Papp, which is the Papp under the condition of complete blockage of P-gp by P-gp inhibitor, of 29 x 10 –6 cm/s.
    Print ISSN: 0090-9556
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-009X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-07-22
    Description: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease in humans. We tested a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein by immunizing BALB/c mice with either intramuscular or subcutaneous regimens. In all cases, MVA-MERS-S induced MERS-CoV-specific CD8 + T cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Vaccinated mice were protected against MERS-CoV challenge infection after transduction with the human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor. This MERS-CoV infection model demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the candidate vaccine.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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