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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 82 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The motor signs of Parkinson's disease have been partly attributed to an overinhibition of the external globus pallidus (GP) that results from hyperactivity of striatopallidal GABA/enkephalinergic neurons. The goals of this study were to measure basal levels of extracellular fluid GABA in the GP of normal cats, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated parkinsonian cats and cats spontaneously recovered from MPTP-induced parkinsonism, and to examine the effects of opioid receptor activation on potassium (K+)-evoked GABA release in the GP in these animals. Basal GP GABA levels were increased 75% from normal in parkinsonian animals 1 week after MPTP administration and returned to control levels in recovered animals 6 weeks afterMPTP administration. No significant differences were observed in K+-evoked GABA release across conditions. The opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2]-Met-Enkephalinamide (DALA) significantly attenuated K+-evoked GABA release in the GP of MPTP-treated symptomatic and recovered cats, but had no significant effect on GABA release in normal animals. These data show that basal GP GABA levels are elevated coincident with expression of parkinsonian signs and return to normal in animals that have functionally compensated for a nigrostriatal lesion. DALA-induced inhibition of pallidal GABA release after a dopamine-depleting lesion, suggests that enkephalin may attenuate GABA release in the GP specifically after striatal dopamine loss.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 31 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Desloratadine is a non-sedating, clinically effective, anti-allergic therapy that has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties that extend beyond its ability to antagonize histamine at H1-receptor sites. This latter effect has been shown in vitro to be both IgE-dependent and -independent.Objective In this study, we addressed the ability of desloratadine to inhibit the in vitro generation of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 from human basophils while concurrently comparing its efficacy in preventing mediator release by these cells.Methods Basophil-enriched suspensions were treated with various concentrations of desloratadine for 15 min before stimulating with either anti-IgE antibody, calcium ionophore, IL-3 or phorbol ester. Histamine (fluorimetry), LTC4 (RIA) and IL-4 (ELISA) were all assayed using the same 4-h culture supernatants. IL-13 (ELISA) was measured in supernatants harvested after 20 h incubation. IL-4 mRNA expression (dilutional RT-PCR) was also examined.Results Desloratadine was found to be nearly six–seven times more potent in preventing the secretion of IL-4 and IL-13 induced by anti-IgE than it was at inhibiting the release of histamine and LTC4. These cytokines were equally inhibited by desloratadine following activation with ionomycin despite the lack of an effect on the histamine induced with ionomycin. Desloratadine had a lesser effect regarding inhibition of the IL-13 secreted in response to IL-3 and PMA. There was no evidence that desloratadine mediated its inhibitory effects by causing decreased cell viability. Finally, IL-4 mRNA accumulation was remarkably inhibited, by as much as 80%, following pretreatment with desloratadine.Conclusion While capable of inhibiting histamine and LTC4 release by human basophils, desloratadine is more effective at targeting the signals regulating IL-4 and IL-13 generation in these cells. This inhibitory effect on cytokine generation provides additional evidence that this antihistamine exerts anti-inflammatory properties.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background The complex interactions between immune cells are partly mediated by different adhesion molecules, but little is known about their role in the systemic immunoinflammatory process following sensitization to food antigens in early infancy.Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1or CD54) and the α subunits of its ligands' lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (αL subunit or CD11a) and Mac-1 (αM subunit or CD11b) on peripheral blood leucocytes in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) and in healthy controls.Methods Thirty-nine breastfed infants, aged from 0.6 to 8.3 months, and their lactating mothers were included in the study from delivery onwards. During follow-up, 25 infants developed CMA and 14 remained healthy. Expressions of CD54 and CD11b on peripheral blood leucocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of CD11a on peripheral blood leucocytes was analysed by immunocytochemistry. Mothers' milk samples were collected and their leucocyte content was evaluated using a light microscope.Results The frequency of ICAM-1 expressing peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher in patients with CMA than in healthy infants (P=0.03, Mann–Whitney U-test). Furthermore, the high proportion of ICAM-1-expressing cells was associated with gastrointestinal and multiorgan symptoms in the CMA infants. There was no significant difference in the expression of Mac-1 αM on lymphocytes in our study groups, but the LFA-1 αL expression seemed to be higher in the IgE-mediated CMA.Conclusion We suggest that the high expression of ICAM-1 on peripheral blood lymphocytes may reflect enhanced stimulation of T cells in vivo and their migration to the effector tissues in an early-phase of developing CMA. Furthermore, high ICAM-1 expression may be associated with the presence of multiorgan manifestations of CMA, whereas high LFA-1 expression may reflect the IgE-mediated disease.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of wildlife research 13 (1967), S. 63-75 
    ISSN: 1439-0574
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Roe deer had browsed the 7–8 year old spruce trees — in some cases rather severely — on two experimentally controlled fertilizer plots. This provided the opportunity to registrate the damages exactly and to separate them, partially according to plots and partially according to the individual plants and their growth characteristics. The distribution of the damages over the two parcels was determined essentially by the local environmental climate, available protective cover and soil vegetation but, on the other hand, only insignificantly by the combination of fertilizers applied. The differentiation according to individual plants revealed that the latebudding spruce trees as well as those with widely spaced, long, thin and “blue” needles had been most severely browsed. There are certain correlations between these characteristics and it is as yet unclear which of them is decisive in determining the deers' preference for the buds. On the other hand, a tendency toward the formation of buds of the nature mentioned exists on plots containing nitrogen, especially on those containing nitrogen-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorous compounds.
    Abstract: Résumé Sur deux plantations expérimentales amendées, le chevreuil (Capreolus capreolus) a abrouti, localement assez fort, des épicéas de 7–8 ans. L'occasion se présentait d'enregistrer les dégâts de façon précise, soit selon les parcelles soit selon les plants individuels et d'en relever les caractères de croissance. Si la répartition des dégâts selon les parcelles fut essentiellement fonction du microclimat, des ressources en fourrés et de la strate herbacée, les formules de fumure furent par contre sans effet notoire. L'observation des plants individuels révéla que les pousses tardives de même que les plants présentant des aiguilles distantes, longues fines et glauques étaient les plus abroutis. Certaines corrélations existent entre ces différents caractères et on ne peut encore distinguer avec évidence quel est celui qui détermine une appétence préférentielle. A leur tour, ce sont les parcelles azotées, et surtout celles ayant reçu une fumure NK et NP qui présentent une tendance à la formation de pousses aux propriétés mentionnées plus haut.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Auf zwei Düngungs-Versuchsflächen hatte Rehwild die dort stehenden 7-bis 8 jährigen Fichten z. T. ziemlich stark verbissen. Es both sich Gelegenheit, die Schäden genau zu registrieren und teils nach Parzellen, teils nach Einzelpflanzen und deren Wuchsmerkmalen aufzuschlüsseln. Die Verteilung der Schäden über die Parzellen wurde wesenlich dagegen durch die Düngungskombinationen bestimmt. Die Aufschlüsselung nach Einzelpflanzen ergab, daß Spättreiber sowie Fichten mit weitständigen, langen, dünnen und „blauen” Nadeln am stärksten verbissen worden waren. Zwischen diesen Merkmalen bestehen gewisse Korrelationen, und es ist noch undurchsichtig, welche von ihnen die Präferenzen bestimmen. Eine Tendenz zur Ausbildung von Trieben der genannten Beschaffenheit besteht wiederum auf den N-haltigen Parzellen, vor allem auf NK und NP.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International journal of legal medicine 55 (1964), S. 246-246 
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International journal of legal medicine 59 (1967), S. 65-69 
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurosurgical review 22 (1999), S. 62-64 
    ISSN: 1437-2320
    Keywords: Key words Cervical spine injuries ; Mayfield head rest ; Halo ring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A small device is described helping to attach a Mayfield head rest to a patient who is already in a Halo device for a cervical spine injury. This makes it very easy to position the patient prior to anesthesia for performing cervical spine surgery.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-3932
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter  Apoplexie ; Karotis-TEA ; Karotisstenting ; Neuromonitoring ; Embolie ; Transkranielle Dopplersonographie ; Key words Stroke ; Carotid TEA ; Carotid stenting ; Neuromonitoring ; Emboli
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract  In a retrospective study we examined whether it is possible to achieve better results in carotid artery surgery with a new operative technique called ”no-touch-isolation technique” in combination with intraoperative angiography than with conventional operative techniques. Patients and methods: In 1997 and 1998, 80 patients who were operated on using this new operative technique were compared with a group of 144 patients who had undergone conventional carotid endarterectomy. The new aspect of the no-touch-isolation technique is that the whole operation strategy aims to avoid possible intraoperative and postoperative embolism. At first, the internal carotid artery is exposed and clamped distally to the stenotic plaque very atraumatically. The operation was then continued without an intraluminal shunt. At the end of the operation the result was checked by means of an intraoperative angiography. If any suggestion of a possible embolism, such as tears of the intima, were seen, an intraoperative revision was carried out until all thrombembolic material was removed. Results: The two groups were not different regarding age, sex, symptoms, degree of stenosis and risk factors nor did any significant differences exist in the operative technique used for endarterectomy (with or without patch, eversions-TEA, etc.). The group operated on with the no-touch-isolation technique had significantly longer operation- times (110 min vs 90 min) and also significantly longer clamping times (38.7 min vs 28.2 min) than the group operated on using conventional technique. The postoperative results, however, were still better. There were significantly fewer neurological deficits (4.1% vs 9.3%). Conclusion: The no-touch-isolation technique in combination with intraoperative angiography is a very safe method of treatment in patients with symptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery with a more than 70% degree of stenosis.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung  In einer retro-spektiven Studie wurde untersucht, inwieweit sich mit einer Optimierung der Operationstechnik an der A. carotis, der sog. No-touch-isolation-Technik, bessere Ergebnisse erzielen lassen. 80 Patienten, die 1997 und 1998 in der neuen Technik operiert worden waren, wurden mit einer Gruppe von 144 Patienten, die zuvor in herkömmlicher Technik operiert worden waren, verglichen. Das Neue der No-touch-isolation-Technik bestand darin, dass die ganze Operationstaktik darauf abzielte, mögliche intraoperative und postoperative Embolien zu vermeiden. Zu diesem Zweck wurde als Erstes die A. carotis interna ganz atraumatisch freigelegt und distal des stenosierenden Plaques abge-klemmt. Anschließend erfolgte die weitere Operation ohne Einlage eines intraluminären Shunts. Am Ende der Operation wurde das Ope-rationsergebnis mittels einer intra-operativen Angiographie kontrol- liert. Wenn sich dabei mögliche übriggebliebene Embolisationsquellen, wie Intimalefzen zeigten, erfolgte eine intraoperative Revision, bis alle Embolisationsquellen besei-tigt waren. Die beiden verglichenen Gruppen unterschieden sich nicht bezüglich Alter, Geschlecht, Sympto-matik, Stenosegrad und Risikofaktoren. Auch bezüglich der angewandten Operationsverfahren (TEA mit oder ohne Patch, Eversions-TEA etc.) bestanden keine signifikanten Unterschiede. Die in No-touch-isolation-Technik operierte Gruppe hatte signifikant längere Operationszeiten (110 vs. 90 min) und auch signifikant längere Abklemmzeiten (38,7 vs. 28,2 min) als die in der herkömmlichen Technik operierte Gruppe. Die perioperativen Ergeb-nisse waren jedoch besser. So traten signifikant weniger neurologische Defizite auf (4,1 vs. 9,3%). Die No-touch-isolation-Technik in Verbindung mit einer intraoperativen Angiographie ist eine Methode mit einer sehr geringen Insultrate bei Patienten mit symptomatischen 〉70%igen Karotisstenosen.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 24 (1968), S. 91-91 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cells ofRhodospirillum rubrum were cultured aerobically or semiaerobically in the dark and anaerobically in the light. The investigation of acid extracts of these cells showed, that this bacterium contained no ascorbic acid under all conditions of cultivation.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European food research and technology 130 (1966), S. 145-152 
    ISSN: 1438-2385
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung An Fleischproben des M. longissimus dorsi von 110 kg schweren Schweinen wurden spektralphotometrisch die Remissionswerte im Bereich von 380 nm bis 1500 nm gemessen und einige ausgewählte Fleischbeschaffenheitsmerkmale (pH-Wert, Quellung, Preßwasser, Kochverlust und Konsistenz) ermittelt sowie zwischen diesen Größen die Korrelationen berechnet. Im Rotbereich (〉 630 nm) ergaben sich die höchsten Korrelationskoeffizienten zwischen den Fleischremissionswerten und den analysierten Merkmalen (Quellung :r = -0,80; p11-Wert:r = −0,80; Preßwasserr = 0,69; Kochverlust:r = 0,68; Konsistenz:r = 0,51). Jedoch waren die Unterschiede gegenüber den bei 522 nm für den Hellbezugswert ermittelten Korrelationskoeffizienten nicht besonders groß, so daß im statistisch korrelativen Bild auch der HellbezugswertA =Y zur Charakterisierung der Fleischbeschaffenheitsmerkmale genügte. Die Übertragung der spektralphotometrisch erzielten Ergebnisse auf Messungen mit einem ortsunabhängigen Farbhellwertphotometer wurde am Beispiel des „Fahellpho Mariensee” demonstriert. Der Einsatz derartiger Meßgeräte zur objektivierten Schätzung von Fleischbeschaffenheitsmerkmalen, insbesondere zur schnellen Ansammlung von Daten für das Studium von Häufigkeitsverteilungen, wurde aufgezeigt.
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