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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 82 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The motor signs of Parkinson's disease have been partly attributed to an overinhibition of the external globus pallidus (GP) that results from hyperactivity of striatopallidal GABA/enkephalinergic neurons. The goals of this study were to measure basal levels of extracellular fluid GABA in the GP of normal cats, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated parkinsonian cats and cats spontaneously recovered from MPTP-induced parkinsonism, and to examine the effects of opioid receptor activation on potassium (K+)-evoked GABA release in the GP in these animals. Basal GP GABA levels were increased 75% from normal in parkinsonian animals 1 week after MPTP administration and returned to control levels in recovered animals 6 weeks afterMPTP administration. No significant differences were observed in K+-evoked GABA release across conditions. The opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2]-Met-Enkephalinamide (DALA) significantly attenuated K+-evoked GABA release in the GP of MPTP-treated symptomatic and recovered cats, but had no significant effect on GABA release in normal animals. These data show that basal GP GABA levels are elevated coincident with expression of parkinsonian signs and return to normal in animals that have functionally compensated for a nigrostriatal lesion. DALA-induced inhibition of pallidal GABA release after a dopamine-depleting lesion, suggests that enkephalin may attenuate GABA release in the GP specifically after striatal dopamine loss.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 31 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Desloratadine is a non-sedating, clinically effective, anti-allergic therapy that has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties that extend beyond its ability to antagonize histamine at H1-receptor sites. This latter effect has been shown in vitro to be both IgE-dependent and -independent.Objective In this study, we addressed the ability of desloratadine to inhibit the in vitro generation of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 from human basophils while concurrently comparing its efficacy in preventing mediator release by these cells.Methods Basophil-enriched suspensions were treated with various concentrations of desloratadine for 15 min before stimulating with either anti-IgE antibody, calcium ionophore, IL-3 or phorbol ester. Histamine (fluorimetry), LTC4 (RIA) and IL-4 (ELISA) were all assayed using the same 4-h culture supernatants. IL-13 (ELISA) was measured in supernatants harvested after 20 h incubation. IL-4 mRNA expression (dilutional RT-PCR) was also examined.Results Desloratadine was found to be nearly six–seven times more potent in preventing the secretion of IL-4 and IL-13 induced by anti-IgE than it was at inhibiting the release of histamine and LTC4. These cytokines were equally inhibited by desloratadine following activation with ionomycin despite the lack of an effect on the histamine induced with ionomycin. Desloratadine had a lesser effect regarding inhibition of the IL-13 secreted in response to IL-3 and PMA. There was no evidence that desloratadine mediated its inhibitory effects by causing decreased cell viability. Finally, IL-4 mRNA accumulation was remarkably inhibited, by as much as 80%, following pretreatment with desloratadine.Conclusion While capable of inhibiting histamine and LTC4 release by human basophils, desloratadine is more effective at targeting the signals regulating IL-4 and IL-13 generation in these cells. This inhibitory effect on cytokine generation provides additional evidence that this antihistamine exerts anti-inflammatory properties.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background The complex interactions between immune cells are partly mediated by different adhesion molecules, but little is known about their role in the systemic immunoinflammatory process following sensitization to food antigens in early infancy.Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1or CD54) and the α subunits of its ligands' lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (αL subunit or CD11a) and Mac-1 (αM subunit or CD11b) on peripheral blood leucocytes in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) and in healthy controls.Methods Thirty-nine breastfed infants, aged from 0.6 to 8.3 months, and their lactating mothers were included in the study from delivery onwards. During follow-up, 25 infants developed CMA and 14 remained healthy. Expressions of CD54 and CD11b on peripheral blood leucocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of CD11a on peripheral blood leucocytes was analysed by immunocytochemistry. Mothers' milk samples were collected and their leucocyte content was evaluated using a light microscope.Results The frequency of ICAM-1 expressing peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher in patients with CMA than in healthy infants (P=0.03, Mann–Whitney U-test). Furthermore, the high proportion of ICAM-1-expressing cells was associated with gastrointestinal and multiorgan symptoms in the CMA infants. There was no significant difference in the expression of Mac-1 αM on lymphocytes in our study groups, but the LFA-1 αL expression seemed to be higher in the IgE-mediated CMA.Conclusion We suggest that the high expression of ICAM-1 on peripheral blood lymphocytes may reflect enhanced stimulation of T cells in vivo and their migration to the effector tissues in an early-phase of developing CMA. Furthermore, high ICAM-1 expression may be associated with the presence of multiorgan manifestations of CMA, whereas high LFA-1 expression may reflect the IgE-mediated disease.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-05-21
    Description: Multiple K+ transporters and channels and the corresponding mutants have been described and studied in the plasma membrane and organelle membranes of plant cells. However, knowledge about the molecular identity of chloroplast K+ transporters is limited. Potassium transport and a well-balanced K+ homeostasis were suggested to play important roles in...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-07
    Description: The concentration of ribonucleoside triphosphates (rNTPs) in cells is far greater than the concentration of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), and this pool imbalance presents a challenge for DNA polymerases (Pols) to select their proper substrate. This report examines the effect of nucleotide pool imbalance on the rate and fidelity of the...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-08-31
    Description: Plants experience hyperosmotic stress when faced with saline soils and possibly with drought stress, but it is currently unclear how plant roots perceive this stress in an environment of dynamic water availabilities. Hyperosmotic stress induces a rapid rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in plants, and this Ca2+ response may...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-06-27
    Description: The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is produced in response to abiotic stresses and mediates stomatal closure in response to drought via recently identified ABA receptors (pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor; PYR/RCAR). SLAC1 encodes a central guard cell S-type anion channel that mediates ABA-induced stomatal closure. Coexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 (CPK21), CPK23, or the Open Stomata 1 kinase (OST1) activates SLAC1 anion currents. However, reconstitution of ABA activation of any plant ion channel has not yet been attained. Whether the known core ABA signaling components are sufficient for ABA activation of SLAC1 anion channels or whether additional components are required remains unknown. The Ca2+-dependent protein kinase CPK6 is known to function in vivo in ABA-induced stomatal closure. Here we show that CPK6 robustly activates SLAC1-mediated currents and phosphorylates the SLAC1 N terminus. A phosphorylation site (S59) in SLAC1, crucial for CPK6 activation, was identified. The group A PP2Cs ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA down-regulated CPK6-mediated SLAC1 activity in oocytes. Unexpectedly, ABI1 directly dephosphorylated the N terminus of SLAC1, indicating an alternate branched early ABA signaling core in which ABI1 targets SLAC1 directly (down-regulation). Furthermore, here we have successfully reconstituted ABA-induced activation of SLAC1 channels in oocytes using the ABA receptor pyrabactin resistant 1 (PYR1) and PP2C phosphatases with two alternate signaling cores including either CPK6 or OST1. Point mutations in ABI1 disrupting PYR1–ABI1 interaction abolished ABA signal transduction. Moreover, by addition of CPK6, a functional ABA signal transduction core from ABA receptors to ion channel activation was reconstituted without a SnRK2 kinase.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-04-30
    Description: The existence and relevance of rapid long-distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust...
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    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-07-21
    Description: Protein microarrays enable investigation of diverse biochemical properties for thousands of proteins in a single experiment, an unparalleled capacity. Using a high-density system called HaloTag nucleic acid programmable protein array (HaloTag-NAPPA), we created high-density protein arrays comprising 12,000 Arabidopsis ORFs. We used these arrays to query protein–protein interactions for a...
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    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-12-16
    Description: MutS is responsible for initiating the correction of DNA replication errors. To understand how MutS searches for and identifies rare base-pair mismatches, we characterized the dynamic movement of MutS and the replisome in real time using superresolution microscopy and single-molecule tracking in living cells. We report that MutS dynamics are...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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