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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 82 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The motor signs of Parkinson's disease have been partly attributed to an overinhibition of the external globus pallidus (GP) that results from hyperactivity of striatopallidal GABA/enkephalinergic neurons. The goals of this study were to measure basal levels of extracellular fluid GABA in the GP of normal cats, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated parkinsonian cats and cats spontaneously recovered from MPTP-induced parkinsonism, and to examine the effects of opioid receptor activation on potassium (K+)-evoked GABA release in the GP in these animals. Basal GP GABA levels were increased 75% from normal in parkinsonian animals 1 week after MPTP administration and returned to control levels in recovered animals 6 weeks afterMPTP administration. No significant differences were observed in K+-evoked GABA release across conditions. The opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2]-Met-Enkephalinamide (DALA) significantly attenuated K+-evoked GABA release in the GP of MPTP-treated symptomatic and recovered cats, but had no significant effect on GABA release in normal animals. These data show that basal GP GABA levels are elevated coincident with expression of parkinsonian signs and return to normal in animals that have functionally compensated for a nigrostriatal lesion. DALA-induced inhibition of pallidal GABA release after a dopamine-depleting lesion, suggests that enkephalin may attenuate GABA release in the GP specifically after striatal dopamine loss.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 3 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We provided a water-cornea interface to correct the usual aerial myopia encountered in fundus photography of marine mammal eyes. The 12 Tursiops eyes were consistent for vascular structure, optic papillae, dimensional components and tapetal coloration. Multiple photographs were assembled to produce one ocular fundus typical of Tursiops truncatus and one for Grampus griseus. The eyes have a vestigial hyaloid vessel and an optic disc („blind spot”) that occupies the center of the fundus. The disc is bounded in both species by a vascular structure that is continuous with a (retrobulbar) perineural organ called the ophthalmic rete. The vascular trees of the fundus do not suggest an area of specialization for high resolution. Both species exhibit total tapetalization. Tapetal spectral reflectance did not vary between Tursiops. There was, however, a difference between species in the short wavelength regions of the spectrum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 4 (1975), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The proband, a healthy primipara, selected for study after she had asserted that she had not previously been pregnant, gave birth to a healthy girl with the karyotype 46.XX In the 21st week of gestation, leukoagglutinin stimulated mitoses from die proband's blood were 99% 46,XX and l% 46.XY. the Y chromosome being identified by its quinacrine fluorescence In two samples taken later in pregnancy no XY mitoses were found in the cultures, but on all three occasions brightly fluorescent Y chromatin in a proportion of the uncultured lymphocyte nuclei showed the presence of XY cells in the proband's blood. High titers of cytotoxic anti-HL-A 3 were detected in the maternal serum before and after delivery. Our tentative interpretation is that the XY cells in the proband's blood emanated from a previous fetus that was legally aborted by curettage on the 10th week of an uneventful pregnancy and which the patient admitted to only after repeated questioning.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 32 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the presence of high concentrations of exogenous arachidonic acid (≥ 10 μm). eosinophils produced 15-hydroxycicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in the absence of stimuli. The calcium ionophore A23187, as well as the chemotaxins used in this study-complement split product C5a, platelet-activating factor (PAF). and,N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine(FMLP)–failed to increase 15-HETE production, indicating that eosinophil 15-lipoxygenase is already active Production of 15-HETE from eosinophils increased with increasing concentrations of arachidonic acid, exogenously added. Maximal 15-HETE production was observed to he 1111 ± 380 ng per 106 eosinophils at the concentration of 100μm of arachidonic acid. With low concentrations of exogenous arachidonic acid (below 2;μm). eosinophils were considered to incorporate exogenous arachidonic acid into their cell membrane, and did not produce 15-HETE. In contrast, 15-HETE formation in highly purified neutrophils (eosinophils 〈 1%) was negligible compared with that in eosinophils (.300-fold less), suggesting that 15 f HETE-forming activity in granulocytes is derived from the eosinophil 15-lipoxygetiase pathway and that neutrophils may lack 15-lipoxygcnase activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 35 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study we report on functional characteristics of pustule as well as blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in patient suffering from relapsing bullous staphyloderma. Large numbers of viable PMN from newly formed pustules as well as from the peripheral blood were investigated. During the course of disease chemotactic migration, enzyme degranulation, superoxide-anion generation and leukotriene B4 production were determined simultaneously.The results revealed C5a- and NAP-1/IL-8-specific dysfunction of pustule PMN as compared with blood PMN. In contrast, FMLP-elicited functional activities of pustule PMN were only slightly affected.Our findings provide evidence that in inflamed tissue invading PMN are regulated by in situ generated mediators. C5a produced by staph. aureus-induced activation of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade represents predominant regulatory factor in situ. Furthermore, the results substantiate previous observations concerning different modulation of C5a and f-met-peptide receptors on human PMN.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 11 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hybrid cells have been recovered from selective culture medium after fusion of concanavalin-A-activated human lymphocytes with an AKR mouse thymoma (BW 5147). After 6 months of culture twenty-seven out of forty-nine clones still contained human chromosomes. Human chromosome 6 was present in 89% of these clones, and human X in 70%. Clones from one hybrid line contained several human chromosomes. In twelve of the clones carrying human chromosomes, the rosetting with sheep Erythrocytes (SRBC) was 3 times as high as In the BW 5147 cell line. All these clones Carried the human chromosome 6, and eight clones contained the human X chromosome as well. In some of these clones (25%) chromosome 6 was the only human one present. In the two clones In which human chromosome 6 was completely missing, the resetting with SRBC was at the level of the BW line. We therefore suggest that genes on human chromosome 6 are responsible for rosetting with SRBC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 8 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In the laboratory, intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in each eye of two adult Tursiops truncatus and one Grampus griseus. Measures were made in alternation between eyes over a time span. Means and standard deviations were calculated. Mean IOP's ranged from 33.4 mm Hg (SD = 2.4) in the male Tursiops to 24.6 (SD = 2.3) in the female Tursiops. IOP in the Grampus was intermediate. Tonograph functions for the Tursiops over periods greater than 25 min had a cyclic character with maxima and minima. These cycles were fitted with a polynomial function with periods of 15 min (female) and 20 to 26 min (male). There was no significant correlation of the IOP variations with time between eyes in either Tursiops. Compared to humans, these cetaceans exhibit clinical ocular hypertension bilaterally. The range of pressures they exhibit, over time, is much greater than reported previously for several terrestrial mammals.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 641 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 31 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Desloratadine is a non-sedating, clinically effective, anti-allergic therapy that has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties that extend beyond its ability to antagonize histamine at H1-receptor sites. This latter effect has been shown in vitro to be both IgE-dependent and -independent.Objective In this study, we addressed the ability of desloratadine to inhibit the in vitro generation of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 from human basophils while concurrently comparing its efficacy in preventing mediator release by these cells.Methods Basophil-enriched suspensions were treated with various concentrations of desloratadine for 15 min before stimulating with either anti-IgE antibody, calcium ionophore, IL-3 or phorbol ester. Histamine (fluorimetry), LTC4 (RIA) and IL-4 (ELISA) were all assayed using the same 4-h culture supernatants. IL-13 (ELISA) was measured in supernatants harvested after 20 h incubation. IL-4 mRNA expression (dilutional RT-PCR) was also examined.Results Desloratadine was found to be nearly six–seven times more potent in preventing the secretion of IL-4 and IL-13 induced by anti-IgE than it was at inhibiting the release of histamine and LTC4. These cytokines were equally inhibited by desloratadine following activation with ionomycin despite the lack of an effect on the histamine induced with ionomycin. Desloratadine had a lesser effect regarding inhibition of the IL-13 secreted in response to IL-3 and PMA. There was no evidence that desloratadine mediated its inhibitory effects by causing decreased cell viability. Finally, IL-4 mRNA accumulation was remarkably inhibited, by as much as 80%, following pretreatment with desloratadine.Conclusion While capable of inhibiting histamine and LTC4 release by human basophils, desloratadine is more effective at targeting the signals regulating IL-4 and IL-13 generation in these cells. This inhibitory effect on cytokine generation provides additional evidence that this antihistamine exerts anti-inflammatory properties.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background The complex interactions between immune cells are partly mediated by different adhesion molecules, but little is known about their role in the systemic immunoinflammatory process following sensitization to food antigens in early infancy.Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1or CD54) and the α subunits of its ligands' lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (αL subunit or CD11a) and Mac-1 (αM subunit or CD11b) on peripheral blood leucocytes in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) and in healthy controls.Methods Thirty-nine breastfed infants, aged from 0.6 to 8.3 months, and their lactating mothers were included in the study from delivery onwards. During follow-up, 25 infants developed CMA and 14 remained healthy. Expressions of CD54 and CD11b on peripheral blood leucocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of CD11a on peripheral blood leucocytes was analysed by immunocytochemistry. Mothers' milk samples were collected and their leucocyte content was evaluated using a light microscope.Results The frequency of ICAM-1 expressing peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher in patients with CMA than in healthy infants (P=0.03, Mann–Whitney U-test). Furthermore, the high proportion of ICAM-1-expressing cells was associated with gastrointestinal and multiorgan symptoms in the CMA infants. There was no significant difference in the expression of Mac-1 αM on lymphocytes in our study groups, but the LFA-1 αL expression seemed to be higher in the IgE-mediated CMA.Conclusion We suggest that the high expression of ICAM-1 on peripheral blood lymphocytes may reflect enhanced stimulation of T cells in vivo and their migration to the effector tissues in an early-phase of developing CMA. Furthermore, high ICAM-1 expression may be associated with the presence of multiorgan manifestations of CMA, whereas high LFA-1 expression may reflect the IgE-mediated disease.
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