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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Basel :S. Karger AG,
    Keywords: Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (203 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783318011746
    Series Statement: Chemical Immunology and Allergy Series ; v.86
    Language: English
    Note: Cover -- Contents -- Preface -- Antimicrobial Peptides: Basic Features and Clinical Relevance -- Antimicrobial Peptides in Drosophila: Structures, Activities and Gene Regulation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Drosophila Defensin, An Anti-Gram-Positive Peptide -- The Antifungal Drosomycin -- Antifungal Peptide -- Metchnikowin, A Cysteine-Free Drosophila Antifungal Peptide -- Cecropins, alpha-Helical Peptides Largely Distributed in Higher Insect Orders -- Drosocin, An Anti-Gram-Negative O-Glycopeptide -- Diptericin, An Anti-Gram-Negative O-Glycopeptide -- Attacins, Large Polypeptides with Antibacterial Properties -- MPAC, the Drosophila Attacin C Pro-Domain with Antibacterial Properties -- Rel Proteins Control Expression of Antimicrobial Peptide Genes -- The Toll and IMD Pathways Control Inducible Expression of AMP Genes -- Other Signaling Pathways Activated during the Drosophila Immune Response -- Hemocytes in the Drosophila Immune Response -- Epithelial Responses in Drosophila -- Concluding Remarks -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Antimicrobial Peptides in Human Skin -- Abstract -- Introduction -- beta-Defensins -- Human beta-Defensin-2 -- Human beta-Defensin-3 -- Human beta-Defensin-1 -- Human beta-Defensin-4 -- Cathelicidin LL-37 -- Serine Protease Inhibitors Antileukoprotease and Elafin -- Dermcidin -- Adrenomedullin -- Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin -- RNase 7 -- Skin Disease Implications -- Conclusion -- References -- Human Defensins in Crohn's Disease -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Epidemiology: The Role of Hygiene -- Pathophysiology: The Role of Luminal and Mucosal Bacteria -- Defensin Expression and Regulation in the Healthy Intestinal Tract -- Defensins and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases -- NOD2, A Peptidoglycan Receptor and Defensin Expression -- Toll-Like Receptors and Their Expression in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. , Therapy: The Role of Antibiotics and Probiotics -- Concluding Remarks -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Antimicrobial Peptides in Lung Inflammation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- AMPs Are Expressed in the Respiratory Tract -- Host Defense in the Airways -- AMPs in the Human Lung -- Regulation of the AMPs in the Lung -- Functions of AMPs in the Respiratory Tract -- Antimicrobial Activity -- Inflammation, Angiogenesis, and Cell Function -- Role of AMPs in Pulmonary Disease -- Pneumonia and Tuberculosis -- Cystic Fibrosis and Diffuse Panbronchiolitis -- Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease -- Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome -- Pulmonary Fibrosis and Sarcoidosis -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgement -- References -- Reciprocal Interactions of Host Cells and Microbes -- Bacterial Evasion of Innate Defense at Epithelial Linings -- Abstract -- How to Circumvent Physical Removal from Body Surfaces -- Overcome Space and Nutrient Deprivation -- Resisting the Low-pH Defense Barrier -- Avoid Protease Mediated Destruction and Opsonization -- Evade Recognition and Cell Activation -- Withstand Targeted Destruction -- Active Penetration of the Epithelial Cell Barrier -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Recognition of Bacterial Products by Toll-Like Receptors -- Abstract -- Mammalian Toll-Like Receptors and Their Ligands -- Extracellular Recognition of TLR Ligands -- TLR4 -- TLR2, TLR2/TLR1, and TLR2/TLR6 -- TLR10 -- TLR5 -- TLR11 -- Intracellular Recognition of TLR Ligands -- TLR3 -- TLR7/TLR8 -- TLR9 -- Conclusion -- References -- TLR Signalling and the Function of Dendritic Cells -- Abstract -- Introduction -- What Are Toll-Like Receptors? -- Toll-Like Receptors Recognize Various Molecules -- Signalling Pathway of TLRs -- MyD88-Dependent Pathway -- MyD88-Independent Pathway -- TIRAP/Mal -- TRIF -- TRAM -- The Role of TLR Family in the Host Defence. , TLRs Stimulate DCs to Induce T Cell Activation -- LPS-Stimulated MyD88-Deficient DCs -- DC Subset-Dependent Cytokine Production -- Conclusion -- References -- Contribution of T Cells to Epithelial Defense -- Immunosurveillance by gama/deltaT Cells: Focus on the Murine System -- Abstract -- TCRgamadelta+ Intraepithelial Lymphocytes -- Immunoprotective Roles of gamadelta T Cells in the Tissues -- Immunoregulatory Roles of Local gamadelta T Cells -- gamadelta+ T Cells and Tumor Surveillance -- gamadelta+ T Cell Regulation of Epithelial Malignancy -- From gamadelta Cell Biology in Mice to Immunosurveillance in Humans -- Immunological Mechanisms Highlighted by gamadelta Cells - Towards the Clinic -- References -- gamadelta T Cells Link Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells Are Expanded by Various Microbes -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells Are Activated by Non-Peptide Antigens -- Non-Mevalonate Pathway Intermediates Are the Most Potent Vgama9/Vdelta2 Activators -- Alkylamines Activate Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells -- N-Bisphosphonates Stimulate Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells Can Kill Bacteria within Hours after Activation -- The Vgama9/Vdelta2 TCR Repertoire Is Shaped by Non-Peptide Antigens -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells and Tumor Surveillance -- Activation of Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells as a Therapeutic Approach in Tumor Treatment: From Bench to Bedside -- Vdelta1 Cells -- Vdelta1 T Cells Are the Dominant gamma/delta T Cell Population at Mucosal Surfaces -- Vdelta1 T Cells Are Activated by MICA/B -- Vdelta1 T Cells Are Activated by Glycolipids Presented by CD1 -- Lipid Extracts from Gram-Negative Bacteria Indirectly Stimulate Vdelta1T Cells -- TCR Repertoire of Vdelta1 T Cells -- The Role of Vdelta1 T Cells in Microbial Infections -- The Role of Vdelta1 T Cells in Tumor Recognition. , Migration and Homing of gamma/delta T cells -- Chemokine Expression of Peripheral gamma/delta T cells -- gamma/delta T Cells Can Be Polarized into TH1/TH2 Cells -- Chemokine Expression of Mucosal gamma/delta T Cells -- gamma/delta T Cells Can Have Immunosuppressive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities -- Expression of Toll-Like Receptors -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Author Index -- Subject Index -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- L -- M -- N -- P -- R -- S -- T -- Y.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 3 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We provided a water-cornea interface to correct the usual aerial myopia encountered in fundus photography of marine mammal eyes. The 12 Tursiops eyes were consistent for vascular structure, optic papillae, dimensional components and tapetal coloration. Multiple photographs were assembled to produce one ocular fundus typical of Tursiops truncatus and one for Grampus griseus. The eyes have a vestigial hyaloid vessel and an optic disc („blind spot”) that occupies the center of the fundus. The disc is bounded in both species by a vascular structure that is continuous with a (retrobulbar) perineural organ called the ophthalmic rete. The vascular trees of the fundus do not suggest an area of specialization for high resolution. Both species exhibit total tapetalization. Tapetal spectral reflectance did not vary between Tursiops. There was, however, a difference between species in the short wavelength regions of the spectrum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 4 (1975), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The proband, a healthy primipara, selected for study after she had asserted that she had not previously been pregnant, gave birth to a healthy girl with the karyotype 46.XX In the 21st week of gestation, leukoagglutinin stimulated mitoses from die proband's blood were 99% 46,XX and l% 46.XY. the Y chromosome being identified by its quinacrine fluorescence In two samples taken later in pregnancy no XY mitoses were found in the cultures, but on all three occasions brightly fluorescent Y chromatin in a proportion of the uncultured lymphocyte nuclei showed the presence of XY cells in the proband's blood. High titers of cytotoxic anti-HL-A 3 were detected in the maternal serum before and after delivery. Our tentative interpretation is that the XY cells in the proband's blood emanated from a previous fetus that was legally aborted by curettage on the 10th week of an uneventful pregnancy and which the patient admitted to only after repeated questioning.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 32 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the presence of high concentrations of exogenous arachidonic acid (≥ 10 μm). eosinophils produced 15-hydroxycicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in the absence of stimuli. The calcium ionophore A23187, as well as the chemotaxins used in this study-complement split product C5a, platelet-activating factor (PAF). and,N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine(FMLP)–failed to increase 15-HETE production, indicating that eosinophil 15-lipoxygenase is already active Production of 15-HETE from eosinophils increased with increasing concentrations of arachidonic acid, exogenously added. Maximal 15-HETE production was observed to he 1111 ± 380 ng per 106 eosinophils at the concentration of 100μm of arachidonic acid. With low concentrations of exogenous arachidonic acid (below 2;μm). eosinophils were considered to incorporate exogenous arachidonic acid into their cell membrane, and did not produce 15-HETE. In contrast, 15-HETE formation in highly purified neutrophils (eosinophils 〈 1%) was negligible compared with that in eosinophils (.300-fold less), suggesting that 15 f HETE-forming activity in granulocytes is derived from the eosinophil 15-lipoxygetiase pathway and that neutrophils may lack 15-lipoxygcnase activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 35 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study we report on functional characteristics of pustule as well as blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in patient suffering from relapsing bullous staphyloderma. Large numbers of viable PMN from newly formed pustules as well as from the peripheral blood were investigated. During the course of disease chemotactic migration, enzyme degranulation, superoxide-anion generation and leukotriene B4 production were determined simultaneously.The results revealed C5a- and NAP-1/IL-8-specific dysfunction of pustule PMN as compared with blood PMN. In contrast, FMLP-elicited functional activities of pustule PMN were only slightly affected.Our findings provide evidence that in inflamed tissue invading PMN are regulated by in situ generated mediators. C5a produced by staph. aureus-induced activation of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade represents predominant regulatory factor in situ. Furthermore, the results substantiate previous observations concerning different modulation of C5a and f-met-peptide receptors on human PMN.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 11 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hybrid cells have been recovered from selective culture medium after fusion of concanavalin-A-activated human lymphocytes with an AKR mouse thymoma (BW 5147). After 6 months of culture twenty-seven out of forty-nine clones still contained human chromosomes. Human chromosome 6 was present in 89% of these clones, and human X in 70%. Clones from one hybrid line contained several human chromosomes. In twelve of the clones carrying human chromosomes, the rosetting with sheep Erythrocytes (SRBC) was 3 times as high as In the BW 5147 cell line. All these clones Carried the human chromosome 6, and eight clones contained the human X chromosome as well. In some of these clones (25%) chromosome 6 was the only human one present. In the two clones In which human chromosome 6 was completely missing, the resetting with SRBC was at the level of the BW line. We therefore suggest that genes on human chromosome 6 are responsible for rosetting with SRBC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 8 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In the laboratory, intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in each eye of two adult Tursiops truncatus and one Grampus griseus. Measures were made in alternation between eyes over a time span. Means and standard deviations were calculated. Mean IOP's ranged from 33.4 mm Hg (SD = 2.4) in the male Tursiops to 24.6 (SD = 2.3) in the female Tursiops. IOP in the Grampus was intermediate. Tonograph functions for the Tursiops over periods greater than 25 min had a cyclic character with maxima and minima. These cycles were fitted with a polynomial function with periods of 15 min (female) and 20 to 26 min (male). There was no significant correlation of the IOP variations with time between eyes in either Tursiops. Compared to humans, these cetaceans exhibit clinical ocular hypertension bilaterally. The range of pressures they exhibit, over time, is much greater than reported previously for several terrestrial mammals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 641 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Although neutrophils have been implicated in bronchial asthma, the mechanism(s) which bring these cells into the airways is poorly understood.Objective To investigate the presence and identity of neutrophil chemotactic factors in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from atopic asthmatic subjects.Method BAL fluid was obtained from 13 subjects (seven asthmatics and six normals). aged 19 to 60 yr, at bronchoscopy. Separation of neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) was achieved by FPLC cation exchange chromatography. Fractions were collected and assayed for chemotaxis multiwell micro-chemotaxes chambers using polycarbonate filters, for the complement peptide C5a/C5a des Arg by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and for interleukin-8 (IL-8) by ELISA.Results NCA was found in FPLC fractions of BAL samples in four out of seven asthmatics and each of these subjects had at least three similar peaks of NCA. The major peak of NCA was found to contain immunoreactive C5a/C5a des Arg and chemotaxis. In response to this NCA could be blocked by desensitization of the neutrophils with recombinant C5a. Purified serum derived C5a/C5a des Arg was found to have altered chromatographic properties when added to BAL fluid; this suggested that BAL fluid contained proteins which interacted with the C5a/C5a des Arg. Immunoreactive IL-8 (iIL-8) was also detected but its concentration or chemical form was insufficient to induce neutropbil chemotaxis.Conclusion This study demonstrates that bronchial asthmatic lavage fluid contains C5a/C5a des/Arg and iL-8, together with other as yet unidentified factors which may contribute to neutropbil recruitment in this disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 712 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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