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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2023-01-14
    Keywords: DATE/TIME; DEPTH, water; Ehhalt1969; Latitude of event; Longitude of event; OCE; Oceanography; δ Deuterium
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 14 data points
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 1 (1983), S. 27-51 
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Variance ; trace/gases ; stratosphere ; mixing length ; mixing surfaces
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The relative variances in stratospheric observations of longlived trace gases CH4, N2O, CF2Cl2, CFCl3 show large differences. These differences are greatly reduced when the local mean standard deviation is normalized to the local vertical gradient. This ratio, called ‘equivalent displacement height’ exhibits a characteristic vertical profile which is very similar for all the longlived trace gases, as well as for O3. With the help of this ratio, it is demonstrated that the variances are essentially due to natural causes, i.e., transport. Using the mixing length hypothesis a theoretical expression for the equivalent displacement height is derived. From it the meridional slope of the mixing surfaces and the mixing length can be calculated as function of the altitude. Additional information is obtained on the variance of that slope. The uncertainty of the measured mean trace gas profiles is defined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 2 (1984), S. 117-124 
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Acetylene ; stratospheric profiles ; trace gas measurements ; stratosphere-troposphere exchange
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Stratospheric measurements of acetylene up to altitudes of 30 km are presented. The air samples were collected during three different balloon flights, two of them at 44°N, one at 32°N using balloon borne, liquid neon-cooled, cryosamplers. Their acetylene concentration was measured in the laboratory by flame ionisation gaschromatography. The different profiles at 32°N and 44°N are discussed with respect to possible vertical exchange processes and compared with published model calculations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Nonmethane hydrocarbons ; trace gases ; remote troposphere ; vertical and latitudinal variation ; vertical transport ; aircraft observation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Meridional cross sections of the concentration of light hydrocarbons are reported. They were obtained from 20. April to 10. May, 1980, during the French research flight STRATOZ II, and cover the latitudes between 60° N and 60° S and the altitudes between 800 mb and 200 mb. The mixing ratios of ethane, ethene, acetylene, propane, propene, n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, and i-pentane range between 2.0 and 0.02 ppb. Globally, a decrease in concentration with increasing altitude and -in most cases-with decreasing latitude is observed. In addition the 2-dimensional concentration fields show structures of different scales. In particular, isolated maxima of high concentrations are found in the upper troposphere. They point to fast vertical transport between the boundary layer and the upper troposphere. In the present case these maxima seem to be correlated with large scale meteorological systems, such as low pressure regions or the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. It is argued that the NMHC provide a set of tracers well suited to the detection of fast vertical transport.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: OH-radicals ; troposphere ; long path absorption spectroscopy ; sensitivity study ; formaldehyde ; measurements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Using long path UV absorption spectroscopy we have measured OH concentrations close to the earth's surface. The OH values observed at two locations in Germany during 1980 through 1983 range from 0.7×106 to 3.2×106 cm-3. Simultaneously we measured the concentrations of O3, H2O, NO, NO2, CH4, CO, and the light non methane hydrocarbons. We also determined the photolysis rates of O3 and NO2. This allows calculations of OH using a zero dimensional time depdendent model. The modelled OH concentrations significantly exceed the measured values for low NO x concentrations. It is argued that additional, so far unidentified. HO x loss reactions must be responsible for that discrepancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 2 (1984), S. 191-202 
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Stratospheric photochemistry ; HO2 -, NO2 +in situ data ; vertical profiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Vertical profiles of stratospheric HO2 and NO2 concentrations were determined using matrix isolation and ESR. Up to 10 different samples per flight were collected in situ by a balloon borne cryosampler. Free radicals and trace constituents which are condensable at 68 K are trapped in a polycristalline H2O or D2O matrix. After collection, the samples are stored at a temperature below 83 K until they are analysed in the laboratory by X-band ESR spectroscopy at 4 K. The HO2 and NO2 were identified and calibrated by comparison with standard samples collected in the laboratory under typical stratospheric sampling conditions. From several flights over Southern France (44°N) we obtained two profiles of the stratospheric NO2 mixing ratio. One, from 21 October 1982, agrees well with previous measurements. The other, from 8 October 1981, is lower by one order of magnitude. The few HO2 data obtained around 35 km altitude agree with previous measurements. An isolated measurement at 17 km altitude is one order of magnitude higher than the model predicted HO2 concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 3 (1985), S. 341-361 
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Peroxyradicals ; NO2 ; in-situ measurement ; matrix isolation ; electron spin resonance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A cryogenic system for the airborne and ground based sampling of ambient radicals by matrix isolation is described. The trapped radicals, e.g., NO2 and RO2, are analyzed by ESR. The technique has been improved, mainly by addition of water vapor to the sampled air, to yield a collection efficiency of (90±10)% and a lower detection limit of about 20 ppt, but it still does not distinguish between the different RO2. Careful calibration reduced the measurement error (1 σ) to ±10% for NO2 and ±15% for HO2. Two diurnal variations of RO2 and NO2 at ground level and vertical profiles in the lower troposphere are presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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