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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 209 (1966), S. 903-904 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In view of the time of onset and the brief duration of the tritium peak it seems far more likely that the tritiated hydrogen was released during the reactor accident at Windscale on October 10 and 11, 1957. Since the samples were taken two days apart, the initial rise in Fig. 1 is not well defined, ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Nonmethane hydrocarbons ; trace gases ; remote troposphere ; vertical and latitudinal variation ; vertical transport ; aircraft observation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Meridional cross sections of the concentration of light hydrocarbons are reported. They were obtained from 20. April to 10. May, 1980, during the French research flight STRATOZ II, and cover the latitudes between 60° N and 60° S and the altitudes between 800 mb and 200 mb. The mixing ratios of ethane, ethene, acetylene, propane, propene, n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, and i-pentane range between 2.0 and 0.02 ppb. Globally, a decrease in concentration with increasing altitude and -in most cases-with decreasing latitude is observed. In addition the 2-dimensional concentration fields show structures of different scales. In particular, isolated maxima of high concentrations are found in the upper troposphere. They point to fast vertical transport between the boundary layer and the upper troposphere. In the present case these maxima seem to be correlated with large scale meteorological systems, such as low pressure regions or the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. It is argued that the NMHC provide a set of tracers well suited to the detection of fast vertical transport.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: OH-radicals ; troposphere ; long path absorption spectroscopy ; sensitivity study ; formaldehyde ; measurements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Using long path UV absorption spectroscopy we have measured OH concentrations close to the earth's surface. The OH values observed at two locations in Germany during 1980 through 1983 range from 0.7×106 to 3.2×106 cm-3. Simultaneously we measured the concentrations of O3, H2O, NO, NO2, CH4, CO, and the light non methane hydrocarbons. We also determined the photolysis rates of O3 and NO2. This allows calculations of OH using a zero dimensional time depdendent model. The modelled OH concentrations significantly exceed the measured values for low NO x concentrations. It is argued that additional, so far unidentified. HO x loss reactions must be responsible for that discrepancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Acetylene ; atmospheric composition ; solar observations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Monthly mean total vertical column abundances of acetylene have been determined from series of infrared solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station, Switzerland, between June 1986 and April 1991. The data have been obtained by nonlinear least-squares fittings of the ν5 band R19 transition of C2H2 at 776.0818 cm-1. The average of 22 monthly mean total vertical columns of C2H2 retrieved during that time interval of almost 5 years was found to be equal to (1.81±0.12)×1015 molec/cm2, which corresponds to an average mixing ratio of (0,22±0.013) ppbv (parts per billion by volume) in a troposphere extending from the altitude of the station (3.58 km), up to 10.5 km. Despite the large variability found from year to year, a least-squares sine fit to the data reveals a seasonal variation with an amplitude of about ±40% of the mean; the maximum occurs during mid-winter and the minimum in the summer. The present results are compared critically with similar in-situ data found in the literature. A sinusoidal fit to all such free troposphere measurements made in-situ between 30°N and 60°N indicates good agreement in shape and phase with the seasonal variation derived above the Jungfraujoch, but their average column abundance, 2.3×1015 molec/cm2, is about 30% higher; this difference is explained on the basis of non-upwelling meteorological conditions generally prevailing during ground-based remote solar observations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 3 (1985), S. 341-361 
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Peroxyradicals ; NO2 ; in-situ measurement ; matrix isolation ; electron spin resonance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A cryogenic system for the airborne and ground based sampling of ambient radicals by matrix isolation is described. The trapped radicals, e.g., NO2 and RO2, are analyzed by ESR. The technique has been improved, mainly by addition of water vapor to the sampled air, to yield a collection efficiency of (90±10)% and a lower detection limit of about 20 ppt, but it still does not distinguish between the different RO2. Careful calibration reduced the measurement error (1 σ) to ±10% for NO2 and ±15% for HO2. Two diurnal variations of RO2 and NO2 at ground level and vertical profiles in the lower troposphere are presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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