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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 8 (1916), S. 779-780 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 9 (1917), S. 687-688 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 108 (1998), S. 10152-10161 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Results from nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of collisional energy transfer from vibrationally highly excited azulene in compressed CO2 are compared with experimental results from our laboratory obtained under comparable physical conditions. As observed in the experiment, the cooling rates show a purely monoexponential decay of the excess energy. The influence of the microscopic solvent shell structure on these processes is investigated using the full three-dimensional anisotropic CO2 structure around azulene obtained from the simulation. The analysis shows that local heating effects of any kind do not play a role in our model system. Predictions of the pressure dependence of the energy transfer rates by the isolated binary collision model are compared with results from the simulations using two different definitions of the collision frequency in dense fluids. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The expressions for vibrational energy relaxation (VER) rates of polyatomic molecules in terms of equilibrium capacity time correlation functions (TCFs) derived in the first paper of this series [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 5273 (1999)] are used for the investigation of VER of azulene in carbon dioxide at low (3.2 MPa) and high (270 MPa) pressure. It is shown that for both cases the VER times evaluated on the basis of the same potential model via solute–solvent interaction capacity TCFs by means of equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations satisfactorily agree with the nonequilibrium (NEMD) molecular dynamics [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 5286 (1999)] and experimental [J. Chem. Phys. 105, 3121 (1996)] results as well. Thus it follows that these methods can complement each other in characterizing VER from different points of view. Although more computational power and refined methods of dealing with simulated data are required for EMD simulations, they allow the use of powerful tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics for investigating the relaxation process. To this end, an analysis of VER mechanisms on the basis of normal mode and atomic representations is carried out. The influence of temperature and CO2 pressure on azulene normal mode spectra and solvent assisted intermode coupling in connection with the eigenvector structure is investigated in great detail. The normal mode capacity cross-correlation matrix reveals the significance of intermode coupling, which significantly contributes to intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR). As a new concept, partial normal mode relaxation rates are introduced. It is shown that these rates demonstrate similar properties as the energy exchange rates through particular normal modes in nonequilibrium simulations. Atomic spectra and friction coefficients are characterized by a complicated frequency dependence due to contributions from many normal modes. Atomic capacity TCFs and partial relaxation rates are analyzed and reveal a similar picture to that obtained from NEMD simulations. These results show that VER and IVR cannot be separated from each other and have to be considered as mutually connected processes. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 106 (1997), S. 7749-7755 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of liquid CO2 at 250 MPa pressure and room temperature have been performed using a flexible model potential. A detailed analysis of the data reveal the full three-dimensional local structure of coordination shells that exhibit significant deviations from spherical symmetry with strong angular correlations among the molecules which form the inner coordination shell of the local liquid structure. Structures resembling T-shaped and offset-parallel CO2 dimers similar to those found in molecular beam and low temperature experiments have been identified, the T-shaped dimer having higher probability to be formed than the offset-parallel configuration. Local motion on short time scale is found to be different along three principal directions of a local coordinate frame. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 110 (1999), S. 5273-5285 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Methods of implementation of classical molecular dynamics simulations of moderate size molecule vibrational energy relaxation and analysis of their results are proposed. Two different approaches are considered. The first is concerned with modeling a real nonequilibrium cooling process for the excited molecule in a solvent initially at equilibrium. In addition to the solute total, kinetic, and potential energy evolution, that define the character of the process and the rate constant or relaxation time, a great deal of important information is provided by a normal mode specific analysis of the process. Expressions for the decay of the normal mode energies, the work done by particular modes, and the vibration–rotation interaction are presented. The second approach is based on a simulation of a solute–solvent system under equilibrium conditions. In the framework of linear nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics and normal mode representation of the solute several expressions for the rate constant are derived. In initial form, they are represented by integrals of the time correlation functions of the capacities of the solute–solvent interaction atomic or normal mode forces and include the solute heat capacity. After some approximations, which are adequate for specific cases, these expressions are transformed to combinations of those for individual oscillators with force–force time correlation functions. As an attempt to consider a strongly nonequilibrium situation we consider a two-temperature model and discuss the reason why the rate constant can be independent on the solute energy or temperature. Expressions for investigation of the energy redistribution in the solvent are derived in two forms. One of them is given in the usual form of a heat transfer equation with the source term describing the energy flux from the excited solute. The other form describes the energy redistribution in the solvent in terms of capacity time correlation functions and can be more convenient if memory effects and spatial dispersion play an important role in energy redistribution in the solvent. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 110 (1999), S. 5286-5299 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Results of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of vibrational energy relaxation of azulene in carbon dioxide and xenon at low and high pressure are presented and analyzed. Simulated relaxation times are in good agreement with experimental data for all systems considered. The contribution of vibration–rotation coupling to vibrational energy relaxation is shown to be negligible. A normal mode analysis of solute-to-solvent energy flux reveals an important role of high-frequency modes in the process of vibrational energy relaxation. Under all thermodynamic conditions considered they take part in solvent-assisted intramolecular energy redistribution and, moreover, at high pressure they considerably contribute to azulene-to-carbon dioxide energy flux. Solvent-assisted (or collision-induced) intermode energy exchange seems to be the main channel, ensuring fast intramolecular energy redistribution. For isolated azulene intramolecular energy redistribution is characterized by time scales from several to hundreds of ps and even longer, depending on initial excitation. The major part of solute vibrational energy is transferred to the solvent via solute out-of-plane vibrational modes. In-plane vibrational modes are of minor importance in this process. However, their contribution grows with solvent density. The distribution of energy fluxes via azulene normal modes strongly depends on thermodynamic conditions. The contribution of hydrogen atoms to the overall solute-to-solvent energy flux is approximately two to three times higher than of carbon atoms depending on the system and thermodynamic conditions as well. Carbon atoms transfer energy only in the direction perpendicular to the molecular plane of azulene, whereas hydrogen atoms show more isotropic behavior, especially at high pressure. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Although neutrophils have been implicated in bronchial asthma, the mechanism(s) which bring these cells into the airways is poorly understood.Objective To investigate the presence and identity of neutrophil chemotactic factors in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from atopic asthmatic subjects.Method BAL fluid was obtained from 13 subjects (seven asthmatics and six normals). aged 19 to 60 yr, at bronchoscopy. Separation of neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) was achieved by FPLC cation exchange chromatography. Fractions were collected and assayed for chemotaxis multiwell micro-chemotaxes chambers using polycarbonate filters, for the complement peptide C5a/C5a des Arg by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and for interleukin-8 (IL-8) by ELISA.Results NCA was found in FPLC fractions of BAL samples in four out of seven asthmatics and each of these subjects had at least three similar peaks of NCA. The major peak of NCA was found to contain immunoreactive C5a/C5a des Arg and chemotaxis. In response to this NCA could be blocked by desensitization of the neutrophils with recombinant C5a. Purified serum derived C5a/C5a des Arg was found to have altered chromatographic properties when added to BAL fluid; this suggested that BAL fluid contained proteins which interacted with the C5a/C5a des Arg. Immunoreactive IL-8 (iIL-8) was also detected but its concentration or chemical form was insufficient to induce neutropbil chemotaxis.Conclusion This study demonstrates that bronchial asthmatic lavage fluid contains C5a/C5a des/Arg and iL-8, together with other as yet unidentified factors which may contribute to neutropbil recruitment in this disease.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 387 (1997), S. 861-861 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] To avoid opportunistic infections, plants and animals have developed antimicrobial peptides in their epithelia that can form pores in the cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms. After contact with microorganisms, vertebrate skin, trachea and tongue epithelia are rich sources of peptide ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 50 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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