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  • 2010-2014  (5)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2021-04-21
    Description: This paper is the outcome of a workshop held in Rome in November 2011 on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the POEM (Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean) program. In the workshop discussions, a number of unresolved issues were identified for the physical and biogeochemical properties of the Mediterranean Sea as a whole, i.e., comprising the Western and Eastern sub-basins. Over the successive two years, the related ideas were discussed among the group of scientists who participated in the workshop and who have contributed to the writing of this paper. Three major topics were identified, each of them being the object of a section divided into a number of different sub-sections, each addressing a specific physical, chemical or biological issue: 1. Assessment of basin-wide physical/biochemical properties, of their variability and interactions. 2. Relative importance of external forcing functions (wind stress, heat/moisture fluxes, forcing through straits) vs. internal variability. 3. Shelf/deep sea interactions and exchanges of physical/biogeochemical properties and how they affect the sub-basin circulation and property distribution. Furthermore, a number of unresolved scientific/methodological issues were also identified and are reported in each sub-section after a short discussion of the present knowledge. They represent the collegial consensus of the scientists contributing to the paper. Naturally, the unresolved issues presented here constitute the choice of the authors and therefore they may not be exhaustive and/or complete. The overall goal is to stimulate a broader interdisciplinary discussion among the scientists of the Mediterranean oceanographic community, leading to enhanced collaborative efforts and exciting future discoveries.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-04-16
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-03-31
    Description: Significant changes in the overturning circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been observed during the last few decades, the most prominent phenomena being the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) in the early 1990s and the Western Mediterranean Transition (WMT) during the mid-2000s. During both of these events unusually large amounts of deep water were formed, and in the case of the EMT, the deep water formation area shifted from the Adriatic to the Aegean Sea. Here we synthesize a unique collection of transient tracer (CFC-12, SF6 and tritium) data from nine cruises conducted between 1987 and 2011 and use these data to determine temporal variability of Mediterranean ventilation. We also discuss biases and technical problems with transient tracer-based ages arising from their different input histories over time; particularly in the case of time-dependent ventilation. We observe a period of low ventilation in the deep eastern (Levantine) basin after it was ventilated by the EMT so that the age of the deep water is increasing with time. In the Ionian Sea, on the other hand, we see evidence of increased ventilation after year 2001, indicating the restarted deep water formation in the Adriatic Sea. This is also reflected in the increasing age of the Cretan Sea deep water and decreasing age of Adriatic Sea deep water since the end of the 1980s. In the western Mediterranean deep basin we see the massive input of recently ventilated waters during the WMT. This signal is not yet apparent in the Tyrrhenian Sea, where the ventilation seems to be fairly constant since the EMT. Also the western Alboran Sea does not show any temporal trends in ventilation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: The knowledge of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC11, CFC12) concentrations in ocean surface waters is a prerequisite for deriving formation rates of, and water mass ages in, deep and bottom waters on the basis of CFC data. In the Antarctic coastal region, surface-layer data are sparse in time and space, primarily due to the limited accessibility of the region. To help filling this gap, we carried out CFC simulations using a regional ocean general circulation model (OGCM) for the Southern Ocean, which includes the ocean-ice shelf interaction. The simulated surface layer saturations, i.e. the actual surface concentrations relative to solubility-equilibrium values, are verified against available observations. The CFC input fluxes driven by concentration gradients between atmosphere and ocean are controlled mainly by the sea ice cover and sea surface temperature and salinity. However, no uniform explanation exists for the controlling mechanisms. Here we present simulated long-term trends and seasonal variations of surface-layer saturation at Southern Ocean deep and bottom water formation sites and other key regions, and we discuss differences between these regions. The amplitudes of the seasonal saturation cycle range from 22% to 66% and their long-term trends amount to rises of 0.1%/year to 0.9%/year. The seasonal saturation maximum lags the ice cover minimum by 2 months. We show that ignoring the trends and using instead the saturations actually observed can lead to systematic errors in deduced inventory-based formation rates by up to 10% and suggest an erroneous decline with time.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
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    In:  EPIC3European Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2010, 2-7 May 2010, Vienna, Austria.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , notRev
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