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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: Fossil carbonate skeletons of marine organisms are archives for understanding the development and evolution of palaeo-environments. However, the correct assessment of past environment dynamics is only possible when pristine skeletons and their biogenic characteristics are unequivocally distinguishable from diagenetically-alteredskeletal elements and non-biogenic features. In this study, we extend our work on diagenesis of biogenic aragonite (Casella et al. 2017) to the investigation of biogenic low-Mg calcite using brachiopod shells. We examined and compared microstructural characteristics inducedby laboratory-based alteration to structural features derived from diagenetic alteration in natural environments. We used four screening methods: cathodoluminescence (CL), cryogenic and conventional field emission-scanning electronmicroscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).We base our assessments of diagenetic alteration and overprint on measurements of, a) images of optical overprint signals, b) changes in calcite crystal orientation patterns, and c) crystal co-orientation statistics. According to the screening process, altered and overprinted samples define two groups. In Group 1 the entire shell is diagenetically overprinted, whereas in Group 2 the shell contains pristine as well as overprinted parts. In the case of Group 2 shells, alteration occurred either along the periphery of the shell including the primary layer or at the interior-facing surface of the fibrous/columnar layer. In addition, we observed an important mode of the overprinting process, namely the migration of diagenetic fluids through the endopunctae corroborated by mineral formation and overprinting in their immediate vicinity, while leaving shell parts between endopunctae in pristine condition. Luminescence (CL) and microstructural imaging (FE-SEM) screening give first-order observations of the degree of overprint as they cover macro-to micron scale alteration features. For a comprehensive assessment of diagenetic overprint these screening methods should be complemented by screening techniques such as EBSD and AFM. They visualise diagenetic changes at submicron and nanoscale levels depicting the replacement of pristine nanocomposite mesocrystal biocarbonate (NMB) by inorganic rhombohedral calcite (IRC). The integration of screening methods allows for the unequivocal identification of highly-detailed alteration features as well as an assessment of the degree of diagenetic alteration.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 2
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    ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
    In:  EPIC3Journal of Structural Biology, ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 207(2), pp. 136-157, ISSN: 1047-8477
    Publication Date: 2020-06-19
    Description: To understand mineral transport pathways for shell secretion and to assess differences in cellular activity during mineralization, we imaged with TEM and FE-SEM ultrastructural characteristics of outer mantle epithelium (OME) cells. Imaging was carried out on Magellania venosa shells embedded/etched, chemically fixed/decalcified and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted samples from the commissure, central shell portions and from puncta. Imaging results are complemented with morphometric evaluations of volume fractions of membrane-bound organelles. At the commissure the OME consists of several layers of cells. These cells form oblique extensions that, incross-section, are round below the primary layer and flat underneath fibres. At the commissure the OME is multi-cell layered, in central shell regions it is single-cell layered. When actively secreting shell carbonate extrapallial space is lacking, because OME cells are in direct contact with the calcite of the forming fibres. Upon termination of secretion, OME cells attach via apical hemidesmosomes to extracellular matrix membranes that line the proximal surface of fibres. At the commissure volume fractions for vesicles, mitochondria and lysosomes are higher relative to single-cell layered regions, whereas for endoplasmic-reticulum and Golgi apparatus there is no difference. FE-SEM, TEM imaging reveals the lack of extrapallial space between OME cells and developing fibres. In addition, there is no indication for an amorphous precursor within fibres when these are in active secretion mode. Accordingly, our results do not support transport of minerals by vesicles from cells to sites of miner-alization, rather by transfer of carbonate ions via transport mechanisms associated with OME cell membranes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: An in vivo study of intracerebral rat glioma using proton-localized NMR spectroscopy showed important modifications of the spectra in the tumor as compared with the contralateral brain. To carry out the assignment of the resonances of the glioma spectra, tumoral and normal rat brain tissues were studied in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro by one-dimensional and two-dimensional proton spectroscopy. N-Acetylaspartate was found at an extremely low level in the glioma. The change of peak ratio total creatine/3.2 ppm peak was found to be due to a simultaneous decrease of the total creatine content and an increase of the 3.2 ppm peak. The 3.2 ppm resonance in the glioma spectra has been shown to originate from choline, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, taurine, inositol, and phosphoethanolamine. The increase of the 3.2 ppm peak in the glioma was found to result from the increase of taurine and phosphoethanolamine contents. The peak in the 1.3 ppm region of the glioma spectra was due to both lactate and mobile fatty acids. Moreover, two-dimensional spectroscopy of excised tissues and extracts showed the presence of hypotaurine only in the tumor.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 13 (1985), S. 385-428 
    ISSN: 0084-6597
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 7 (1979), S. 473-502 
    ISSN: 0084-6597
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 82 (1985), S. 868-872 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio self-consistent spin polarized calculations have been performed for the electronic structure of the heteronuclear diatomic molecules LiH, CO, and NO; using local spin density functional theory. The Kohn–Sham functions have been expanded in terms of a basis set of Gaussian orbitals. All the one and two electron integrals are calculated exactly. The matrix elements of the exchange correlation potential are computed numerically using a two dimensional doubling grid developed for this purpose. The total energy, the binding energy, the equilibrium distance, the vibrational frequency, and the dipole moment are reported and compared with experimental results and with other calculations. The agreement of our results with experimental values is very good in all cases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a pattern-recognition receptor that detects unmethylated CpG motifs prevalent in bacterial and viral DNA. TLR9 stimulation is a key event after bacterial infection, triggering innate immunity and T-helper type 1 skewed adaptive immunity. Synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) represent a promising and novel class of immune adjuvants for allergy treatment, vaccination, and cancer therapy. However, common functional TLR9 gene variants could interfere with the clinical utilization of CpG-ODN in immunotherapy. Recently, a possible association of TLR9 polymorphism C-1237T with asthma has been reported.Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate whether TLR9 polymorphisms or haplotypes have functional relevance and are associated with atopy.Methods We genotyped five common TLR9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in promoter, exon, and intron regions of the gene in 527 healthy blood donors, and estimated four common haplotypes. The total IgE and specific IgE levels against the most common aeroallergens were measured (n=303). IFN-α production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) was analysed after stimulation with TLR9 ligand CpG-ODN (n=220).Results No significant influence of common TLR9 polymorphisms and haplotypes on the total and specific IgE levels was found. Functional analysis of CpG-ODN-induced IFN-α did not indicate a significant role for common TLR9 gene polymorphisms in TLR9 function.Conclusion We conclude that common genetic differences in the TLR9 gene exert no major influence on allergy susceptibility, and are unlikely to have on impact on clinical application of CpG-ODNs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Inorganica Chimica Acta 17 (1976), S. L3-L4 
    ISSN: 0020-1693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Westerville, Ohio : American Ceramics Society
    Journal of the American Ceramic Society 86 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) employing focus-variation phase-reconstruction methods is used to image the atomic structure of grain boundaries in a silicon nitride ceramic at subangstrom resolution. Complementary energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy experiments revealed the presence of yttrium ions segregated to the 0.5–0.7-nm thin amorphous boundary layers that separate individual grains. Our objective here is probing if yttrium ions attach to the prismatic planes of the Si3N4 at the interface toward the amorphous layer, using Scherzer and phase-reconstruction imaging, as well as image simulation. Crystal structure images of grain boundaries in thin sample (〈100 Å) areas do not reveal the attachment of yttrium at these positions, although lattice images from thicker areas do suggest the presence of yttrium at these sites. It is concluded that most of the yttrium atoms are located in the amorphous phase and only a few atoms may attach to the terminating prism plane. In this case, the line concentrations of such yttrium in the latter location are estimated to be at most one yttrium atom every 17 Å.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The effects of grain-boundary chemistry on the mechanical properties of high-purity silicon nitride ceramics have been investigated, specifically involving the role of oxygen, present along the grain boundaries, in influencing the fracture behavior. To avoid complications from inadvertently introduced impurities, studies were performed on a high-purity Si3N4 processed using two-step gas-pressure-HIP sintering. Varying the grain-boundary oxygen content, which was achieved by control of oxidizing heat treatments and sintering additives, was found to result in a transition in fracture mechanism, from transgranular to intergranular fracture, with an associated increase in fracture toughness. This phenomenon is correlated to an oxygen-induced change in grain-boundary chemistry and possibly to a concomitant structural transformation along the interface. The incorporation of oxygen appears to affect fracture by “weakening” the interface, thus facilitating debonding and crack advance along the boundaries, and hence to toughening by grain bridging. It is concluded that if the oxygen content in the thin grain-boundary films exceeds a lower limit, which is ∼0.87 equiv% oxygen content, then the interfacial structure and bonding characteristics favor intergranular debonding during crack propagation; otherwise, transgranular fracture ensues.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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