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  • 1
    Keywords: Monsoons ; Climatic changes ; Geology, Structural ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Asien ; Monsunklima ; Orogenese ; Tektonik ; Erosion ; Einfluss
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (308 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393103
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 342
    DDC: 551.8
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2023-03-08
    Keywords: AGE; Age, comment; Age, maximum/old; Age, minimum/young; Interpretation from literature (PKDB); Latitude of event; Longitude of event; Paleoclimate Database of the Quaternary; PKDB; PKDB286433; Precipitation, relative difference; Temperature, relative difference
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 5 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-05-20
    Description: Introduction Functional constipation (FC) is a common gastrointestinal disease. Systematic reviews indicate that acupuncture may be effective for patients with FC. However, this conclusion is not convincing due to the quality, sample size and methodological heterogeneity of the studies included by these systematic reviews. Therefore, it is necessary for us to conduct a meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from high-quality clinical trials to determine whether acupuncture is effective for patients with FC. Methods and analysis Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture for adult patients with FC will be searched in several databases from inception to April 2015. The corresponding authors of eligible studies will be contacted and invited to contribute raw data. The primary outcome is the change in spontaneous defaecation per week from baseline. The secondary outcomes include the proportion of responders, changes in stool quality, mean transit time, proportion of patients using laxatives and adverse events. We will check all of the data and perform reanalysis according to the statistical methodology reported in previous publications. Then we will harmonise the raw data and use a two-step method to conduct the IPD meta-analysis. First, we will calculate the effect size of acupuncture of each trial by analysis of covariance, with the principal end point as the dependent variable and the baseline scores as the covariates. Second, the effect size of acupuncture in each original study will be combined in the meta-analysis. Dissemination On the basis of the IPD meta-analysis of high-quality RCTs, this review will answer the question of whether acupuncture is effective for FC. The findings of the review will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2014 CRD42014009901.
    Keywords: Open access, Complementary medicine, Gastroenterology and hepatology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2022-05-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 11 (2014): 3685-3693, doi:10.5194/bg-11-3685-2014.
    Description: Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of cropping practices on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit yield (yield-scaled), rather than by land area (area-scaled), is needed to inform trade-off decisions to increase yields and reduce GHG emissions. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify impacts of rice varieties on the global warming potential (GWP) of GHG emissions at the yield scale in China. Our results showed that significantly higher yield-scaled GWP occurred with indica rice varieties (1101.72 kg CO2 equiv. Mg−1) than japonica rice varieties (711.38 kg CO2 equiv. Mg−1). Lower yield-scaled GHG emissions occurred within 120–130 days of growth duration after transplanting (GDAT; 613.66 kg CO2 equiv. Mg−1), followed by 90–100 days of GDAT (749.72 kg CO2 equiv. Mg−1, 100–110 days of GDAT (794.29 kg CO2 equiv. Mg−1), and 70–80 days of GDAT (800.85 kg CO2 equiv. Mg−1). The fertilizer rate of 150–200 kg N ha−1 resulted in the lowest yield-scaled GWP. Consequently, appropriate cultivar choice and pairs were of vital importance in the rice cropping system. A further life cycle assessment of GHG emissions among rice varieties at the yield scale is urgently needed to develop win–win policies for rice production to achieve higher yield with lower emissions.
    Description: This research was part of the National Programs for High-Yielding Rice Science and Technology (Grant no. 2013BAD07B11) and the Project for “12th 5-year plan” Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (Grant No. 201203081).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 7988-7993 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report on the electrical and optical properties of silicon (Si)-doped InP layers grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy using a valved phosphorus cracker cell. Within the range of Si effusion cell temperatures investigated (900–1200 °C), the highest electron concentration obtained was 1.1×1020 cm−3. A saturation phenomenon was observed for the electron concentration at higher Si cell temperatures. 300 and 77 K Hall mobility data were used to determine the compensation ratios by comparing them with the theoretical data. Although the Hall data show that the compensation ratio increases with the increase in carrier concentration, the exact values are not certain because the theoretical calculation overestimates the mobility values at higher carrier concentrations. The saturation phenomenon of electron concentration in InP may be considered due to the Si atoms occupying both the In and P lattice sites, or Si donors located at the interstitial sites. The 300 K Hall mobility and the concentration data measured were found to fit the Hilsum expression well. The mobility values obtained in this study are better than or comparable to reported data in the past, indicating good material quality. 5 K photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed two peaks for the undoped and low doped InP layers corresponding to the neutral donor-bound exciton transitions (D0–X) and the acceptor-related transitions (D–A), respectively. When the doping level was increased, the near-band edge (D0–X) recombination peak becomes broadened and asymmetric due to changes in the donor level density of states and relaxation of the wave vector conservation rule. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) value of the PL peak position increased when the doping concentration was increased. An empirical equation was developed to fit this variation, which provides a convenient way of determining the dopant concentration from the experimental FWHM value. The near-band edge peak positions shifted to higher energy with the increase of doping level due to the band filling effect. This shift agreed well with the calculations based on the Burstein–Moss shift and the band gap narrowing effect considering a nonparabolic conduction band. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1994), S. 2544-2546 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: High mobility Si/Si1−xGex/Si p-type modulation-doped double heterostructures with Ge fractions of 0.2, 0.25, 0.3 have been grown by rapid thermal process/very low pressure-chemical vapor deposition. Hole Hall mobilities as high as ∼300 cm2/V s (at 293 K and sheet carrier concentration of ∼2.6×1013 cm−2) and ∼8400 cm2/V s (at 77 K and sheet carrier concentration of ∼1.2×1013 cm−2) have been obtained for heterostructures with x=0.3. The variation of hole mobility with temperature and the influence of the Ge fraction on hole mobility were investigated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 77 (2000), S. 869-871 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: InP/InGaAs double-heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) structures were grown metamorphically on GaAs substrates by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy. A linearly graded InxGa1−xP (x varying from 0.48 to 1) buffer layer was used to accommodate the strain relaxation. The crystallinity of the buffer layer and the HBT structure was examined by x-ray diffractometry. Devices with 5×5 μm2 emitter area showed a typical peak current gain of 40, a common-emitter breakdown voltage (BVCEO) higher than 9 V, a current gain cut-off frequency (fT) of 46 GHz, and a maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of 40 GHz. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 85 (1999), S. 7374-7379 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report the transport and photoluminescence (PL) properties of silicon-doped GaInP layers grown on GaAs (100) substrate using a valved phosphorus cracker cell in solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Within the range of silicon (Si) effusion cell temperature investigated (900–1200 °C), the highest electron concentration obtained was 7.7×1018 and 3.2×1018 cm−3 at room temperature and 77 K, respectively. The concentration decreased with further increase in the silicon cell temperature. The Hall mobility at 300 K varied from 356 to 1720 cm2/V s within the range of electron concentration measured (4.5×1016–7.7×1018 cm−3). Except for the sample grown at the highest silicon cell temperature (1200 °C), the PL spectrum of other samples showed a dominant peak attributed to Si donor-to-band transition (D–B), which shifted to higher energy following an increase in the electron concentration. This phenomenon was attributed to the Burstein–Moss effect. The blueshift of the (D–B) transition peak at increasing temperature was attributed to thermal ionization of the Si donors. The sample grown at the highest Si cell temperature showed a PL peak at ∼1.913 eV which was attributed to transition between the conduction band and Si acceptor (B–A), with an activation energy of ∼57.2 meV as deduced from the PL spectrum. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements confirmed the amphoteric behavior of the Si dopant in this sample. The PL intensity at 10 K decreased and the full width at half maximum increased significantly from ∼8 to ∼32 meV following an increase in the electron concentration from 4.5×1016 to 7.7×1018 cm−3. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Somatostatin (SRIF) controls many physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system but the respective roles of the five receptor isotypes (sst1–5) that mediate its effects are yet to be defined. In the present study, we attempted to identify functions of the sst2 receptor using mice with no functional copy of this gene (sst2 KO mice). In contrast with control 129Sv/C57Bl6 mice, sst2 mRNA was no longer detectable in the brain of sst2 KO mice; 125I-labeled Tyr0DTrp8-SRIF14 binding was also greatly reduced in almost all brain structures except for the hippocampal CA1 area, demonstrating that sst2 accounts for most SRIF binding in mouse brain. Invalidation of this subtype generated an increased anxiety-related behaviour in a number of behavioural paradigms, while locomotor and exploratory activity was decreased in stress-inducing situations. No major motor defects could be detected. sst2 KO mice also displayed increased release of pituitary ACTH, a main regulator of the stress response. Thus, somatostatin, via sst2 receptor isotype pathways, appears involved in the modulation of locomotor, exploratory and emotional reactivity in mice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Clinical studies have shown that estrogen deprivation through menopause is a risk factor in both the initiation and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that estrogen replacement therapy may be protective. One of the major pathological features in the human AD brain is the senile plaque, a proteinaceous structure composed mainly of heterogeneous peptides collectively known as A-beta (Aβ). In vitro studies have linked estrogen with Aβ modulation, suggesting that one-way that estrogen depletion at menopause may exacerbate the features of AD is through Aβ accumulation. To test this, two studies were performed on transgenic models of amyloidosis. Firstly, transgenic mice without detectable amyloid aggregates were subjected to ovariectomy and estradiol supplementation, and Aβ levels were assessed. Secondly, the effects of estrogen modulation were assessed in mice at an age when plaques would be forming initially. Overall, Aβ levels were higher in estrogen-deprived mice than intact mice, and this effect could be reversed through the administration of estradiol. These data suggest that, in vivo, estrogen depletion leads to the accumulation of Aβ in the CNS, which can be reversed through replacement of estradiol. These results provide evidence that post-menopausal estrogen depletion may be linked to an increased risk of AD through Aβ modulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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