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  • 1
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union)
    In:  Paleoceanography, 6 (5). pp. 593-608.
    Publication Date: 2016-06-16
    Description: Radiocarbon ages on CaCO3 from deep-sea cores offer constraints on the nature of the CaCO3 dissolution process. The idea is that the toll taken by dissolution on grains within the core top bioturbation zone should be in proportion to their time of residence in this zone. If so, dissolution would shift the mass distribution in favor of younger grains, thereby reducing the mean radiocarbon age for the grain ensemble. We have searched in vain for evidence supporting the existence of such an age reduction. Instead, we find that for water depths of more than 4 km in the tropical Pacific the radiocarbon age increases with the extent of dissolution. We can find no satisfactory steady state explanation and are forced to conclude that this increase must be the result of chemical erosion. The idea is that during the Holocene the rate of dissolution of CaCO3 has exceeded the rain rate of CaCO3. In this circumstance, bioturbation exhumes CaCO3 from the underlying glacial sediment and mixes it with CaCO3 raining from the sea surface.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-16
    Description: ROOTH proposed that the Younger Dryas cold episode, which chilled the North Atlantic region from 11,000 to 10,000 yr BP, was initiated by a diversion of meltwater from the Mississippi drainage to the St Lawrence drainage system. The link between these events is postulated to be a turnoff, during the Younger Dryas cold episode, of the North Atlantic's conveyor-belt circulation system which currently supplies an enormous amount of heat to the atmosphere over the North Atlantic region2. This turnoff is attributed to a reduction in surface-water salinity, and hence also in density, of the waters in the region where North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) now forms. Here we present oxygen isotope and accelerator radiocarbon measurements on planktonic foraminifera from Orca Basin core EN32-PC4 which reveal a significant reduction in meltwater flow through the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico from about 11,200 to 10,000 radiocarbon years ago. This finding is consistent with the record for Lake Agassiz which indicates that the meltwater from the southwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was diverted to the northern Atlantic Ocean through the St Lawrence valley during the interval from ~11,000 to 10,000 years before present (yr BP).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-15
    Description: Sharp jumps in climate punctuate the records from borings in the Greenland ice cap during the time interval 60,000 to about 20,000 yr ago. Rapid fluctuations are also seen in foraminifera records for cores from the northern Atlantic and in a pollen record from a core from a bog in the Vosges Mountains in France. In this paper we present a new radiocarbon chronology for northern Atlantic deep-sea core V23-81 which permits comparison with the radiocarbon-dated Vosges Mountains pollen record. Because of the lack of a 14C chronology for the Greenland ice record and of distortions peculiar to each of the three records, it is not yet possible to say whether or not the events are genetically related.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    AGU (American Geophysical Union)
    In:  Paleoceanography, 3 (4). pp. 509-515.
    Publication Date: 2016-06-15
    Description: A radiocarbon-calibrated box model for today's ocean suggests that a lag of about 1750 years should exist between the arrival of the midpoint of the deglaciation 18O signal in the deep Atlantic Ocean and its arrival in the deep Pacific Ocean. In order to assess the actual lag, we have carried out accelerator radiocarbon measurements on two cores from the Atlantic Ocean and one core from the Pacific Ocean. Although the results are not definitive, there is a suggestion that the actual time lag was about 1000 years.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona
    In:  Radiocarbon, 31 (2). pp. 157-162.
    Publication Date: 2020-06-04
    Description: Radiocarbon ages on handpicked foraminifera from deep-sea cores are revealing that areas of rapid sediment accumulation are in some cases subject to hiatuses, reworking and perhaps secondary calcite deposition. We present here an extreme example of the impacts of such disturbances. The message is that if precise chronologies or meaningful benthic planktic age differences are to be obtained, then it is essential to document the reliability of radiocarbon ages by making both comparisons between coexisting species of planktomc foraminifera and detailed down-core sequences of measurements.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-06-16
    Description: It has long been recognized that the transition from the last glacial to the present interglacial was punctuated by a brief and intense return to cold conditions. This extraordinary event, referred to by European palynologists as the Younger Dryas, was centered in the northern Atlantic basin. Evidence is accumulating that it may have been initiated and terminated by changes in the mode of operation of the northern Atlantic Ocean. Further, it appears that these mode changes may have been triggered by diversions of glacial meltwater between the Mississippi River and the St. Lawrence River drainage systems. We report here Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon results on two strategically located deep-sea cores. One provides a chronology for surface water temperatures in the northern Atlantic and the other for the meltwater discharge from the Mississippi River. Our objective in obtaining these results was to strengthen our ability to correlate the air temperature history for the northern Atlantic basin with the meltwater history for the Laurentian ice sheet.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-06-15
    Description: As a test of the reliability of paleocean ventilation rates reconstructed from radiocarbon age differences between planktonic and benthic foraminifera, measurements have been made on coexisting species of planktonic foraminifera. While ideally no differences should exist, we do find them. In this paper we discuss the possible causes for these differences and attempt to evaluate their impact on the interpretation of benthic-planktonic age differences.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-15
    Description: Abrupt changes in climatic conditions have been seen at high latitudes in the North Atlantic1 and the Antarctic2,3 at 13 kyr BP. It is important to determine whether this abrupt change was confined to high-latitude regions or whether it was global. Here we present results demonstrating an abrupt change in the rate and character of sedimentation in the South China Sea at the close of the last glacial period. Radiocarbon dating and its position in the oxygen isotope shift suggest that this change may be coincident with the changes found at high latitudes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-15
    Description: Radiocarbon ages for benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the late glacial sections of two Atlantic and two Pacific cores are reported. The differences for benthic-planktonic pairs suggest that the radiocarbon age for deep Atlantic water was somewhat larger than today's (i.e., 600±250, as opposed to 400 years) and that the radiocarbon age for deep Pacific water was also slightly larger than today's (2100±400, as opposed to 1600, years). Our results suggest that during glacial time, the deep Pacific was, as it is today, significantly depleted in radiocarbon relative to the deep Atlantic. As many questions remain unanswered regarding the reliability of this approach, these conclusions must be considered to be preliminary.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-10
    Description: Abrupt changes in climatic conditions have been seen at high latitudes in the North Atlantic and the Antarctic at 13 kyr BP. It is important to determine whether this abrupt change was confined to high-latitude regions or whether it was global. Here we present results demonstrating an abrupt change in the rate and character of sedimentation in the South China Sea at the close of the last glacial period. Radiocarbon dating and its position in the oxygen isotope shift suggest that this change may be coincident with the changes found at high latitudes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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