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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 26 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science, Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 31 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Although neutrophils have been implicated in bronchial asthma, the mechanism(s) which bring these cells into the airways is poorly understood.Objective To investigate the presence and identity of neutrophil chemotactic factors in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from atopic asthmatic subjects.Method BAL fluid was obtained from 13 subjects (seven asthmatics and six normals). aged 19 to 60 yr, at bronchoscopy. Separation of neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) was achieved by FPLC cation exchange chromatography. Fractions were collected and assayed for chemotaxis multiwell micro-chemotaxes chambers using polycarbonate filters, for the complement peptide C5a/C5a des Arg by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and for interleukin-8 (IL-8) by ELISA.Results NCA was found in FPLC fractions of BAL samples in four out of seven asthmatics and each of these subjects had at least three similar peaks of NCA. The major peak of NCA was found to contain immunoreactive C5a/C5a des Arg and chemotaxis. In response to this NCA could be blocked by desensitization of the neutrophils with recombinant C5a. Purified serum derived C5a/C5a des Arg was found to have altered chromatographic properties when added to BAL fluid; this suggested that BAL fluid contained proteins which interacted with the C5a/C5a des Arg. Immunoreactive IL-8 (iIL-8) was also detected but its concentration or chemical form was insufficient to induce neutropbil chemotaxis.Conclusion This study demonstrates that bronchial asthmatic lavage fluid contains C5a/C5a des/Arg and iL-8, together with other as yet unidentified factors which may contribute to neutropbil recruitment in this disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Infiltration of the airways by T helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes is a well-recognized feature of bronchial asthma. Monocyte-derived chemokine (MDC) is a potent attractant which activates Th2 lymphocytes via the chemokine receptor CCR4. We have investigated both leukocyte recruitment and MDC release into the airways of asthmatic patients. Differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid showed that numbers of lymphocytes and eosinophils were elevated in asthmatics compared with normal subjects (median, 6.1 vs. 1.0 × 103/ml, P 〈 0.005 and 1.4 vs. 0.24 × 103/ml, P = 0.001, respectively). By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay it was demonstrated that MDC concentrations were significantly elevated in BAL fluid from asthmatics compared with normals (medians 282 pg/ml, range 190–780 pg/ml vs. median 29 pg/ml range 17–82 pg/ml, P 〈 0.001). Interestingly, there was a significant correlation between MDC levels and the bronchoconstrictive response to methacholine [PC20 forced expiratory volume (FEV)1, r = −0.78, P = 0.001], suggesting that MDC may be involved in the severity of the disease. By immunohistochemistry, MDC was localized predominantly to the bronchial epithelium in bronchial biopsies derived from stable asthmatics. Moreover, primary human airway epithelial cells were found to release MDC upon cytokine stimulation. These findings suggest that MDC may play a major role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Eotaxin-2/CCL24 is a potent eosinophil attractant that has been implicated in the recruitment of eosinophils in allergic disease. We have investigated whether the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and interferon (IFN)-gamma regulate eotaxin-2/CCL24 in nasal polyps.Methods:  Nasal polyps were cultured in the presence of the cytokines described above and the concentration of eotaxin-2/CCL24 was measured in the culture supernatant.Results:  IL-4 was found to be the major stimulus for eotaxin-2/CCL24 production from nasal polyps followed by IL-13 and IFN-gamma. IL-4 induced eotaxin-2/CCL24 in a dose-dependent manner with concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/ml being able to induce eotaxin-2/CCL24. By immunohistochemistry, eotaxin-2/CCL24 immunoreactivity was localized to mononuclear cells in the IL-4 stimulated nasal polyp tissue. Interestingly, nasal turbinates obtained from patients suffering from nonallergic rhinitis (vasomotor rhinitis) were also found to release eotaxin-2/CCL24 both spontaneously and following cytokine stimulation with IL-4 and IFN-gamma being major inducers of this cytokine.Conclusions:  All together these findings suggest that Th1 and Th2 cytokines may regulate eotaxin-2/CCL24 production in nasal polyps and nonallergic rhinits.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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