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  • 1
    Keywords: Marine sediments ; Sediment transport ; Environmental management
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XV, 602 S , Ill , 29 cm
    ISBN: 0471025402
    Series Statement: A Wiley-Interscience publication
    DDC: 551.3/6
    Language: English
    Note: Outgrowth of lectures presented at a short course, 'The New concepts of continental margin sedimentation, II', sponsored by the American Geological Institute ... convened at Key Biscayne, Florida, on November 15 to 17, 1974 , Includes bibliographies and index
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 32 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The most extensive Jurassic marine transgression in North America reached its maximum limits during the Oxfordian Age. At this time, siliciclastic sediments were being brought into the North American seaway from an uplifted zone to the west. Within this setting, complexes of sand ridges and coquinoid sands layers were deposited. Coquinoid sandstones appear to fill erosional scours and were interpreted as channel fills. Re-evaluation of these features in the light of recently discovered attributes of modern shelf sediments and processes has produced a revised model of coquinoid sand deposition in this setting. Coquinoid sandstones which fill ‘channel-like’ scours in the Oxfordian (Upper Jurassic) rocks of central Wyoming and south-central Montana, appear to have formed through the migration of sand waves across the crests of inner shelf sand ridges during periods of storm and tidal flow. Erosion in the zone of flow reattachment in the troughs between sand waves resulted in the development of shell lags. Migration of these scour zones as the sand waves advanced resulted in the deposition of sheet-like coquinoid sandstone bodies. Sand waves crossing the ridge crest tended to migrate more slowly and to be overstepped by later sand waves. Sand wave troughs thus buried have channel-like geometries with apparent epsilon bedding.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Kenilworth Member of the Blackhawk Formation (Mesaverde Group) is part of a series of strand plain sandstones that intertongue with and overstep the shelfal shales of the western interior basin of North America. Analysis of this section at a combination of small (sedimentological) and large (stratigraphical) scales reveals the dynamics of progradation of a shelf-slope sequence into a subsiding foreland basin.Four major lithofacies are present in the upper Mancos and Kenilworth beds of the Book Cliffs. A lag sandstone and channel-fill shale lithofacies constitutes the thin, basal, transgressive sequence, which rests on a marine erosion surface. It was deposited in an outer shelf environment. Shale, interbedded sandstone and shale, and amalgamated sandstone lithofacies were deposited over the transgressive lag sandstone lithofacies as a wave-dominated delta and its flanking strand plains prograded seaward.Analysis of grain size and primary structures in Kenilworth beds indicates that there are four basic strata types which combine to build the observed lithofacies. The fine- to very fine-grained graded strata of the interbedded facies are tempestites, deposited out of suspension by alongshelf storm flows (geostrophic flows). There is no need to call on cross-shelf turbidity currents (density underflows) to explain their presence. Very fine- to fine-grained hummocky strata are likewise suspension deposits created by waning storm flows, but were deposited under conditions of more intense wave agitation on the middle shoreface. Cross-strata sets in this region are bed-load deposits that accumulated on the upper shore-face, in the surf zone. Lag strata are multi-event, bed-load deposits that are the product of prolonged storm winnowing. They occur on transgressive surfaces. While the graded beds are tempestites in the strict sense, all four classes of strata are storm deposits.The distribution of strata types and their palaeocurrent orientations suggests a model of the Kenilworth transport system driven by downwelling coastal storm flows, and probably by a northeasterly alongshore pressure gradient. The stratification patterns shift systematically from upper shoreface to lower shoreface and inner shelf lithofacies partly because of a reduction in fluid power expenditure with increasing water depth, but also because of progressive sorting, which resulted in a decrease in grain size in the sediment load delivered to successive downstream environments.The Kenilworth Member and an isolated outlier, the Hatch Mesa lentil, constitute a delta-prodelta shelf depositional system. Their rhythmically bedded, lenticular, sandstone and shale successions are a prodelta shelf facies, and may be prodelta plume deposits. Major Upper Cretaceous sandstone tongues in the Book Cliffs are underlain by erosional surfaces like that beneath the Blackhawk Formation, which extend for many tens of kilometres into the Mancos shale. These surfaces are the boundaries of Upper Cretaceous depositional sequences. The sequences are large-scale genetic stratigraphic units. They result from the arranging of facies into depositional systems; the depositional systems are in turn stacked in repeating arrays, which constitute the depositional sequences. The anatomy of these foreland basin sequences differs
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 17 (1971), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Grain-size distributions of sand samples by means of a Benthos Rapid Sediment Analyzer were determined, using SCHLEE'S (1966) fall times. The results were compared with analysis of the same samples by sieving. The Rapid Sediment Analyzer (RSA) consistently overestimated the mean diameter of fine samples and underestimated the diameter of coarse samples relative to sieving. Since we used a wider settling column and a smaller sample weight than did Schlee, we infer that the differences were due to weaker grain interaction effects in our analyzer. Thus, by using Schlee's fall times, we overcompensated for these effects. We conclude that the “new grain parameter” of fall velocity (SENGUPTA and VEENSTRA, 1968) is indeed valuable. MIDDLETON'S (1967) psi transform is more convenient than the analogous phi transform in that it yields Middle-ton sand classes of 0 to 5 psi, as compared to Wentworth-Krumbein sand classes of -1 to 4 phi. However, use of fall velocity does not completely obviate the need to determine grain diameter, since this is the most expedient criterion with which to correct fall velocity to standard fall velocity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: In order to evaluate a model of Holocene shelf sediment distribution requiring a nearshore modern sand facies and an offshore relict sand facies, we have undertaken a textural reconnaissance of the Virginia-North Carolina Coast between Capes Henry and Hatteras. Grab samples were subjected to grain-size analysis by means of a modified Woods Hole Rapid Sediment Analyser. Textural provinces were erected with the aid of factor vector analysis. These include medium-grained sands of the beach and surf zones; seaward fining, fine-grained sands of the shore face, and heterogenous sands of the sea floor. In this latter province, grain size is controlled by a ridge and swale topography, with coarser sand on the crests. Coast-wise grain-size trends on the beach and shore face can be explained by assuming that wave heights increase toward the south, and that the Pleistocene sediment source is exposed higher on the shore face in the north than it is in the south. The shore face is retrograding, except in the vicinity of Diamond Shoals. There is textural evidence for a former Albemarle River channel, which bisects the study area. A model for sediment fractionation on a retreating barrier coast with low sediment input is proposed, based on studies which indicate that on such coasts: (1) barrier superstructures retreat more or less continuously by upper shore-face erosion and storm washover; and (2) lower shore-face erosion results in an equal-volume aggradation of the adjacent sea floor, and forms the leading edge of the Holocene transgressive sand sheet. The nearshore “modern” sands and offshore “relict” sands are both present in the study area, but the terms are unnecessarily restrictive. Both are “relict” in the sense of being derived from a Pleistocene substrate, and both are “modern” in the sense of having undergone adjustment to a modern hydraulic regime. While modern and relict are useful general terms, it is convenient in this area to refer to a Holocene barrier sand prism, versus a Holocene transgressive sand sheet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 11 (1968), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Cape Fear Formation rests on basement rocks in the Cape Fear River valley of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. It consists primarily of graded muddy sand—sandy mud couplets. A typical sequence for each couplet starts with a disconformity, followed by a basal gravelly sand with megaclasts of quartz and clay pebbles, cross-bedded sand, and finally a structureless mud bed. Fossils are absent. The sand fraction is poorly sorted and the sediment has a clayey texture. Structures and textures suggest that each couplet is the product of a current waning from an upper flow regime, to the lower part of a lower flow regime. Turbidity current and fluvial origins are considered. Cross-bedding and textural criteria indicate that normal, low-density currents are responsible for at least part of the typical sequence. A normal fluvial origin is rendered less likely by the absence of mud cracking, root casts, and textural criteria of a partitioned subaerial environment. Stratigraphic and geochemical considerations suggest that the formation may have been deposited in estuaries or coastal lagoons; if so, the stratification may record sedimentation during the periodic flushing of saline water by river floods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Stratigraphy presupposes a hierarchy of scales of spatial organization supplemented at the small-scale end by sedimentological concepts (beds, bed sets and bed cosets) and, at larger spatial scales, by sequence-stratigraphic concepts (systems tracts, parasequences, sequences). Between these two end-members are intermediate-scale bodies described as ‘lithofacies’, or simply ‘facies’. A more restricted concept, granulometric facies, can be described in terms of horizontal grain-size gradients (‘facies change’) and cyclic vertical grain-size gradients (‘stratification’). Assemblages of facies so defined (also called depositional systems) are not random, but occur in a limited suite of patterns. Such assemblages may be linked to two classes of bounding surfaces, a source diastem (the immediate source of the sediment) and a surface of closure (if preserved), between which is sandwiched a transgressive or regressive, basinward-fining facies succession. Systems-bounding surfaces are notably more continuous than internal (gradational) facies boundaries. By thus restricting the definition of a facies assemblage (depositional system), it is possible to describe the Quaternary of the Virginia coast with as few as 12 systems. Depositional systems in the Quaternary of the Virginia coast are allometric, in that any system can be derived from any other by plastic expansion of one or more facies relative to another, or by simple symmetry operations. Self-similarity prevails across this intermediate scale of stratigraphic organization. Facies assemblages (depositional systems) consist of event beds, which themselves have erosional basal boundaries and internal successions of microfacies. At larger spatial scales, depositional systems are repeated, either autocyclic repetitions forced by processes within the basin of deposition or allocyclic repetitions, as ‘parasequences’ and high-frequency sequences. In the Virginia Quaternary, systems architecture is compatible with sequence architecture and nests conformably within its framework, but analysis of systems architecture reveals rules beyond those governing sequence architecture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 28 (1981), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The ridge and swale topography of the Middle Atlantic Bight is best developed on the Delaware-Maryland inner shelf. Here sand ridges can be seen in all stages of formation. Several aspects of the ridge field are pertinent to the problem of ridge genesis. The first is ridge morphology. There is a systematic morphologic change from shoreface ridges through nearshore ridges to offshore ridges, which reflects the changing hydraulic regime. As successively more seaward ridges are examined, maximum side slope decreases, the ratio of maximum seaward slope to maximum landward slope decreases, and the cross-sectional area increases. These changes in ridge morphology with depth and distance from shore appear to be equivalent to the morphologic changes experienced by a single ridge during the course of the Holocene transgression.A second aspect is the change in bottom sediment characteristics that accompanies these large-scale morphologic changes. Megaripples, sand waves and mud lenses appear in the troughs between nearshore and offshore ridges. These changes indicate that the storm flows which maintain ridges are less frequently experienced in the deeper sector, and that the role of high-frequency wave surge becomes less important relative to the role of the mean flow component in shaping the sea-floor.A third aspect is the systematic relationship of grain size to topography. Grain size is 90° out of phase with topography, so that the coarsest sand lies between the axis of the landward trough and the ridge crest, while the finest sand lies between the ridge crest and the axis of the seaward trough. This relationship is characteristic of large-scale bedforms.Finally, flow was measured and transport calculated on the same ridge during a one-month period (November 1976). Threshold was exceeded only during storm events. Mean transport was southerly and a little seaward with respect to both the ridge crest and the shoreline. These flow measurements are in conformity with the pattern of smaller bedforms. A 43-year time series of bathymetric change for this ridge reveals a systematic pattern of landward flank erosion, seaward flank deposition, and seaward crest migration.Sand ridges are considered the consequence of constructive feedback between an initial topography and the resulting distribution of bottom shear stress. The relationship between grain size and topography supports this model, but does not account directly for the oblique angle of the ridge with respect to the coastline. This feature may be due to a more rapid alongshore migration rate of the inshore edge of the ridge than the offshore edge, and the relationship between this migration rate, and the rate of shoreface retreat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 34 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Duke (1985b) argues that ‘most examples (of hummocky cross-stratification) were formed by tropical hurricanes.’ His statement is based on the assumption that ‘hurricane-generated surface gravity waves form powerful oscillating or multidirectional flows at the water-sediment interface which do not possess a significant unidirectional component.’ It is true, as one of us has previously stated, that hurricanes are rapidly-moving, short-lived, localized, and infrequent systems as compared with mid-latitude storms; midlatitude storms are consequently more efficient in coupling with the shelf water-column than are hurricanes. However, Duke's argument that hummocky cross-stratification may be the result of purely oscillatory flow is untenable. His reasoning contradicts established theory about oscillatory bedforms, and his numerous examples of hummocky cross-stratification come largely from continental shelf settings where the storms (tropical or otherwise) would have created concurrent alongshelf undirectional flow as well as wave oscillatory motion. There is no theoretical or observational basis for the belief that water movement on the sea-floor during hurricanes is qualitatively different from water movement during mid-latitude storms. Consequently, hummocks are no more liable to form beneath hurricanes than they are beneath mid-latitude storms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 338 (1989), S. 308-308 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THE Wadden Sea is the intertidal zone of the German Bight of the North Sea. Varying in width from 10 to 50 km, it is an expanse of tidal channels, flats, inlets, flood and ebb deltas, barrier islands and estuaries that extends from Den Helder in the Netherlands to Blavandshuk in Denmark. ...
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