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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Grass and forage science 60 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: An experiment was conducted to determine the genetic variation among diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties for sward structural characteristics considered to be important for intake by cattle. Assessments were made between June and September in 2000 and 2001. Six varieties (Abergold, Respect, Agri, Herbie, Barezane and Barnhem) were subjected to a cutting experiment where swards were cut after 3 to 4 weeks of regrowth during the growing season. The variables, measured in three 2-week periods, were herbage mass of dry matter (DM), sward surface height (SSH), bulk density, proportion of green leaf, tiller density, tiller weight, extended tiller height, length of sheath and length of leaf blade. Significant differences among varieties were found in both years for herbage mass of DM, SSH, bulk density, proportion of green leaf, tiller density, tiller weight and length of sheath. The results show that there is significant genetic variation among diploid perennial ryegrass varieties for sward characteristics important for intake during grazing.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Four perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars were compared for differences in herbage production, nutritive value and herbage intake of dry matter (DM) during the summers of 2002 and 2003. Two paddocks were sown with pure stands of four cultivars in a randomized block design with three replicates. Each plot was subdivided into fourteen subplots (22 m × 6 m) which were grazed by one cow during 24 h. Twelve lactating dairy cows were assigned to one cultivar for a period of 2 weeks in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design; the experiment lasted 8 weeks in each year. Sward structure (sward surface height, DM yield, green leaf mass, bulk density and tiller density) and morphological characteristics were measured. The ash, neutral-detergent fibre, acid-detergent lignin, crude protein and water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations, and in vitro digestibility of the herbage were measured. The sward was also examined for infestation by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. lolii). Herbage intake of dairy cows was estimated using the n-alkane technique. Cultivar differences for all sward structural characteristics were found except for bulk density and tiller density in 2003. Cultivars differed for proportions of pseudostem, stem (in 2003 only) and dead material. The chemical composition of the herbage was different among cultivars, with the water-soluble carbohydrate concentration showing large variation (〉0·35). Cultivars differed in susceptibility to crown rust. Herbage intake differed among cultivars in 2002 (〉2 kg DM) but not in 2003. Herbage intake was positively associated with sward height, DM yield and green leaf mass. Canopy morphology did not affect herbage intake. Crown rust affected herbage intake negatively. It was concluded that options for breeders to select for higher intake were limited. High-yielding cultivars and cultivars highly resistant to crown rust were positively related with a high herbage intake.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 47 (1975), S. 2087-2091 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background It has been suggested that the period immediately after birth is a sensitive period for the development of atopic disease.Objective We investigated whether birth characteristics and environmental factors are associated with the development of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life.Methods Seventy-six children with and 228 without atopic dermatitis, all children of mothers with respiratory allergy or asthma (PIAMA birth cohort study) were included in the study. Atopic dermatitis was defined as a positive history of an itchy skin condition with at least two of the following characteristics: visible dermatitis, history of outer arms/leg involvement, or general dry skin. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to study the independent effects of various risk factors.Results A birth weight 〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:09547894:CEA1751:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉4000 g compared to 3000–4000 g was a significant risk factor for atopic dermatitis (odds ratio (OR)=2.4; 95% CI: 1.1–5.1) as was day care attendance (OR=2.9; 95% CI: 1.5–5.9). Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 3 months was negatively associated with atopic dermatitis (OR=0.6; 95% CI: 0.3–1.2), especially with visible dermatitis (OR=0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–1.0). Gender, gestational age, the presence of siblings or pets, and parental smoking were not significantly associated with atopic dermatitis.Conclusion This study shows that a high birth weight and day care attendance increase the risk of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life, while exclusive breastfeeding is a protective factor when dermatitis is found on inspection.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Clinical & experimental allergy 30 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background In recent years antioxidants, foods rich in antioxidants (e.g. fruits, vegetables) and fish have been suggested to protect against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are also indications for a protective effect of whole grain intake and of consuming moderate amounts of alcohol. It is, however, not clear whether the effects of the different dietary factors on COPD are independent of each other and if so, whether their effects are additive.Objective To gain more insight into the potential protective effect of diet on COPD, we studied fruit, vegetable, fish, alcohol and whole grain consumption simultaneously in relation to pulmonary function and COPD symptoms.Methods Analysed were cross-sectional data collected in 13 651 men and women aged 20–59 years participating between 1994 and 1997 in the MORGEN study (monitoring project on risk factors and health in The Netherlands). Regression models were adjusted for age, gender, height (for pulmonary function only), smoking, BMI and energy intake.Results Fruit and whole grain intake showed independent beneficial associations with COPD (P-trend 〈 0.001). Furthermore, in subjects with low alcohol consumption (1–30 g/day) the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was higher and the prevalence of COPD symptoms lower than in non-drinkers (P 〈 0.001). The effects of a favourable intake of fruits (〉 180 g/day), whole grains (〉 45 g/day) and alcohol (1–30 g/day) were largely additive. In the 2998 subjects with a favourable intake of the three foods, the FEV1 was 139 mL higher and the prevalence of COPD symptoms lower (odds ratio (OR) = 0.44) than in subjects (n = 1406) with unfavourable intakes of fruits, whole grains and alcohol (P 〈 0.001). A similar effect was observed in those who had never smoked. Fish and vegetable intake did not show independent beneficial associations with COPD.Conclusions Our results suggest independent beneficial effects of fruits, whole grains and alcohol on COPD that are largely additive and cannot be explained by smoking habits.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background A family history of allergy, reflecting genetic risk factors, increases the risk of developing allergic diseases, but environmental factors, especially those present in early life, also contribute to the actual development of allergic phenomena.Objective To identify differences in lifestyle between allergic and non-allergic parents, which may influence the prevalence of environmental risk factors in their homes.Methods Data were collected in a Dutch birth cohort study by postal questionnaire about 2 months before and 3 months after the birth of the child.Results Of the 3147 infants in the study 1910 (61%) had two non-allergic parents, of 315 infants (10%) only the mother was allergic, of 787 infants (25%) only the father was allergic and 135 (4%) infants had two allergic parents. If both parents were allergic, 53% reported that allergy was taken into consideration when they furnished their home and significantly more of their homes were free of cats and free of cigarette smoke; adjusted odds ratio's for two allergic parents vs. two non-allergic parents were 0.30 (confidence interval (CI) 0.17–0.50) for the presence of cats and 0.46 (CI 0.27–0.75) for smoking in the home. Parental allergy was also associated with having a smooth floor in the baby's bedroom and with postponement of the introduction of fruits and vegetables until the age of 26 weeks. The presence of dogs at home, the prevalence of mothers' smoking during pregnancy and the decision to breast feed were unrelated to parental allergy.Conclusion We conclude that studies on the relationship between allergy in parents and allergy in their offspring should always consider the home environment as a potential confounder. For allergy prevention our results imply that among allergic parents there is awareness and willingness to take measures that reduce exposure to indoor allergens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Reduction of allergen exposure from birth may reduce sensitization and subsequent allergic disease.Objective To measure the influence of mite allergen-impermeable mattress encasings and cotton placebo encasings on the amount of dust and mite allergen in beds.Methods A total of 810 children with allergic mothers took part in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Allergen-impermeable and placebo mattress encasings were applied to the childrens' and the parents' beds before birth. Dust samples were taken from the beds of children and their parents before birth and 3 and 12 months after birth. Extracts of dust samples were analysed for mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1).Results Active mattress encasings were significantly more effective in reducing dust and mite allergen levels than placebo encasings. Mite allergen levels were low in general and the treatment effect was modest. Twelve months after birth, mattresses with active mattress encasings had about half the amount of Der 1 (Der p 1 + Der f 1)/m2, compared to mattresses with placebo encasings, for the child's and the parental mattress.Conclusion This study shows that mite-impermeable mattress encasings have a significant but modest effect on dust and mite allergen levels of mattresses with low initial mite allergen levels, compared to placebo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The sample to be analysed, and a standard of known composition, were irradiated simultaneously in the poolside facility of a nuclear reactor for 130 hours in a thermal neutron flux of approximately 2×1013 n.cm−2. sec−1, and the induced radioactivity compared after a cooling period of four weeks. The investigation was done with a high resolution Ge(Li) detector coupled to a fully transistorized 4000 channel analyser. The concentration of five elements, namely Sb, Ag, Zn, Co and Fe, was determined in human dental calculus by instrumental activation analysis and found to be 0,68 ppm, 0,18 ppm, 174 ppm, 0,08 ppm and 54 ppm respectively.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Water and environment journal 11 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1747-6593
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: During recent years, water management in The Netherlands has been broadening its scope by: (a) including aspects of economics, sociology and physical planning, and (b) introducing interactive policy making; this paper illustrates these developments using the Westerschelde estuary as an example. The Westerschelde strategy aims at optimizing the multi-national use of this estuary. The main functions are navigation and ecology, and the paper shows how these functions can be combined. An interactive management model, the ‘COSMO-Westerschelde’is described, which assists decision makers in comparing strategies for estuarine management under different scenarios.
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