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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Basel :S. Karger AG,
    Keywords: Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (203 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9783318011746
    Series Statement: Chemical Immunology and Allergy Series ; v.86
    Language: English
    Note: Cover -- Contents -- Preface -- Antimicrobial Peptides: Basic Features and Clinical Relevance -- Antimicrobial Peptides in Drosophila: Structures, Activities and Gene Regulation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Drosophila Defensin, An Anti-Gram-Positive Peptide -- The Antifungal Drosomycin -- Antifungal Peptide -- Metchnikowin, A Cysteine-Free Drosophila Antifungal Peptide -- Cecropins, alpha-Helical Peptides Largely Distributed in Higher Insect Orders -- Drosocin, An Anti-Gram-Negative O-Glycopeptide -- Diptericin, An Anti-Gram-Negative O-Glycopeptide -- Attacins, Large Polypeptides with Antibacterial Properties -- MPAC, the Drosophila Attacin C Pro-Domain with Antibacterial Properties -- Rel Proteins Control Expression of Antimicrobial Peptide Genes -- The Toll and IMD Pathways Control Inducible Expression of AMP Genes -- Other Signaling Pathways Activated during the Drosophila Immune Response -- Hemocytes in the Drosophila Immune Response -- Epithelial Responses in Drosophila -- Concluding Remarks -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Antimicrobial Peptides in Human Skin -- Abstract -- Introduction -- beta-Defensins -- Human beta-Defensin-2 -- Human beta-Defensin-3 -- Human beta-Defensin-1 -- Human beta-Defensin-4 -- Cathelicidin LL-37 -- Serine Protease Inhibitors Antileukoprotease and Elafin -- Dermcidin -- Adrenomedullin -- Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin -- RNase 7 -- Skin Disease Implications -- Conclusion -- References -- Human Defensins in Crohn's Disease -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Epidemiology: The Role of Hygiene -- Pathophysiology: The Role of Luminal and Mucosal Bacteria -- Defensin Expression and Regulation in the Healthy Intestinal Tract -- Defensins and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases -- NOD2, A Peptidoglycan Receptor and Defensin Expression -- Toll-Like Receptors and Their Expression in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. , Therapy: The Role of Antibiotics and Probiotics -- Concluding Remarks -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Antimicrobial Peptides in Lung Inflammation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- AMPs Are Expressed in the Respiratory Tract -- Host Defense in the Airways -- AMPs in the Human Lung -- Regulation of the AMPs in the Lung -- Functions of AMPs in the Respiratory Tract -- Antimicrobial Activity -- Inflammation, Angiogenesis, and Cell Function -- Role of AMPs in Pulmonary Disease -- Pneumonia and Tuberculosis -- Cystic Fibrosis and Diffuse Panbronchiolitis -- Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease -- Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome -- Pulmonary Fibrosis and Sarcoidosis -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgement -- References -- Reciprocal Interactions of Host Cells and Microbes -- Bacterial Evasion of Innate Defense at Epithelial Linings -- Abstract -- How to Circumvent Physical Removal from Body Surfaces -- Overcome Space and Nutrient Deprivation -- Resisting the Low-pH Defense Barrier -- Avoid Protease Mediated Destruction and Opsonization -- Evade Recognition and Cell Activation -- Withstand Targeted Destruction -- Active Penetration of the Epithelial Cell Barrier -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Recognition of Bacterial Products by Toll-Like Receptors -- Abstract -- Mammalian Toll-Like Receptors and Their Ligands -- Extracellular Recognition of TLR Ligands -- TLR4 -- TLR2, TLR2/TLR1, and TLR2/TLR6 -- TLR10 -- TLR5 -- TLR11 -- Intracellular Recognition of TLR Ligands -- TLR3 -- TLR7/TLR8 -- TLR9 -- Conclusion -- References -- TLR Signalling and the Function of Dendritic Cells -- Abstract -- Introduction -- What Are Toll-Like Receptors? -- Toll-Like Receptors Recognize Various Molecules -- Signalling Pathway of TLRs -- MyD88-Dependent Pathway -- MyD88-Independent Pathway -- TIRAP/Mal -- TRIF -- TRAM -- The Role of TLR Family in the Host Defence. , TLRs Stimulate DCs to Induce T Cell Activation -- LPS-Stimulated MyD88-Deficient DCs -- DC Subset-Dependent Cytokine Production -- Conclusion -- References -- Contribution of T Cells to Epithelial Defense -- Immunosurveillance by gama/deltaT Cells: Focus on the Murine System -- Abstract -- TCRgamadelta+ Intraepithelial Lymphocytes -- Immunoprotective Roles of gamadelta T Cells in the Tissues -- Immunoregulatory Roles of Local gamadelta T Cells -- gamadelta+ T Cells and Tumor Surveillance -- gamadelta+ T Cell Regulation of Epithelial Malignancy -- From gamadelta Cell Biology in Mice to Immunosurveillance in Humans -- Immunological Mechanisms Highlighted by gamadelta Cells - Towards the Clinic -- References -- gamadelta T Cells Link Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells Are Expanded by Various Microbes -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells Are Activated by Non-Peptide Antigens -- Non-Mevalonate Pathway Intermediates Are the Most Potent Vgama9/Vdelta2 Activators -- Alkylamines Activate Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells -- N-Bisphosphonates Stimulate Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells Can Kill Bacteria within Hours after Activation -- The Vgama9/Vdelta2 TCR Repertoire Is Shaped by Non-Peptide Antigens -- Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells and Tumor Surveillance -- Activation of Vgama9/Vdelta2 T Cells as a Therapeutic Approach in Tumor Treatment: From Bench to Bedside -- Vdelta1 Cells -- Vdelta1 T Cells Are the Dominant gamma/delta T Cell Population at Mucosal Surfaces -- Vdelta1 T Cells Are Activated by MICA/B -- Vdelta1 T Cells Are Activated by Glycolipids Presented by CD1 -- Lipid Extracts from Gram-Negative Bacteria Indirectly Stimulate Vdelta1T Cells -- TCR Repertoire of Vdelta1 T Cells -- The Role of Vdelta1 T Cells in Microbial Infections -- The Role of Vdelta1 T Cells in Tumor Recognition. , Migration and Homing of gamma/delta T cells -- Chemokine Expression of Peripheral gamma/delta T cells -- gamma/delta T Cells Can Be Polarized into TH1/TH2 Cells -- Chemokine Expression of Mucosal gamma/delta T Cells -- gamma/delta T Cells Can Have Immunosuppressive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities -- Expression of Toll-Like Receptors -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Author Index -- Subject Index -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- L -- M -- N -- P -- R -- S -- T -- Y.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 32 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the presence of high concentrations of exogenous arachidonic acid (≥ 10 μm). eosinophils produced 15-hydroxycicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in the absence of stimuli. The calcium ionophore A23187, as well as the chemotaxins used in this study-complement split product C5a, platelet-activating factor (PAF). and,N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine(FMLP)–failed to increase 15-HETE production, indicating that eosinophil 15-lipoxygenase is already active Production of 15-HETE from eosinophils increased with increasing concentrations of arachidonic acid, exogenously added. Maximal 15-HETE production was observed to he 1111 ± 380 ng per 106 eosinophils at the concentration of 100μm of arachidonic acid. With low concentrations of exogenous arachidonic acid (below 2;μm). eosinophils were considered to incorporate exogenous arachidonic acid into their cell membrane, and did not produce 15-HETE. In contrast, 15-HETE formation in highly purified neutrophils (eosinophils 〈 1%) was negligible compared with that in eosinophils (.300-fold less), suggesting that 15 f HETE-forming activity in granulocytes is derived from the eosinophil 15-lipoxygetiase pathway and that neutrophils may lack 15-lipoxygcnase activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Scandinavian journal of immunology 35 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study we report on functional characteristics of pustule as well as blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in patient suffering from relapsing bullous staphyloderma. Large numbers of viable PMN from newly formed pustules as well as from the peripheral blood were investigated. During the course of disease chemotactic migration, enzyme degranulation, superoxide-anion generation and leukotriene B4 production were determined simultaneously.The results revealed C5a- and NAP-1/IL-8-specific dysfunction of pustule PMN as compared with blood PMN. In contrast, FMLP-elicited functional activities of pustule PMN were only slightly affected.Our findings provide evidence that in inflamed tissue invading PMN are regulated by in situ generated mediators. C5a produced by staph. aureus-induced activation of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade represents predominant regulatory factor in situ. Furthermore, the results substantiate previous observations concerning different modulation of C5a and f-met-peptide receptors on human PMN.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Although neutrophils have been implicated in bronchial asthma, the mechanism(s) which bring these cells into the airways is poorly understood.Objective To investigate the presence and identity of neutrophil chemotactic factors in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from atopic asthmatic subjects.Method BAL fluid was obtained from 13 subjects (seven asthmatics and six normals). aged 19 to 60 yr, at bronchoscopy. Separation of neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) was achieved by FPLC cation exchange chromatography. Fractions were collected and assayed for chemotaxis multiwell micro-chemotaxes chambers using polycarbonate filters, for the complement peptide C5a/C5a des Arg by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and for interleukin-8 (IL-8) by ELISA.Results NCA was found in FPLC fractions of BAL samples in four out of seven asthmatics and each of these subjects had at least three similar peaks of NCA. The major peak of NCA was found to contain immunoreactive C5a/C5a des Arg and chemotaxis. In response to this NCA could be blocked by desensitization of the neutrophils with recombinant C5a. Purified serum derived C5a/C5a des Arg was found to have altered chromatographic properties when added to BAL fluid; this suggested that BAL fluid contained proteins which interacted with the C5a/C5a des Arg. Immunoreactive IL-8 (iIL-8) was also detected but its concentration or chemical form was insufficient to induce neutropbil chemotaxis.Conclusion This study demonstrates that bronchial asthmatic lavage fluid contains C5a/C5a des/Arg and iL-8, together with other as yet unidentified factors which may contribute to neutropbil recruitment in this disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Experimental dermatology 10 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Dendritic cells seem to be of major importance for the pathogenesis of psoriasis. They are increased in number in lesional psoriatic skin which is thought to be due to an increased influx from the peripheral blood regulated by chemotaxins. Using a biological/biochemical approach we have addressed the question whether psoriasis scale extracts contain proteinaceous chemotaxins for dendritic cells. Human monocytes differentiated into dendritic cells by culture with GM-CSF and IL-4 (MoDC) served as responder cells. Chemotactic activity for MoDC was purified by several HPLC-steps. The results of our study show that C5a/C5adesarg is the major chemotactic peptide for MoDC in psoriasis scale extracts. In comparison to other stimuli such as fMLP or monocyte chemotactic peptide 1 (MCP-1) C5a proved to be a most potent and efficient chemotaxin for MoDC. C5a co-eluted with MRP14/calgranulin B which is present in large amounts in psoriasis scale extracts as identified by amino acid sequencing. However, MRP14/calgranulin B did not possess any chemotactic activity for MoDC. Our results provide evidence that C5a/C5adesarg although not specific for dendritic cells seems to be the major chemoattractant for these cells in lesional psoriasis skin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Experimental dermatology 9 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The etiology and pathogenesis of psoriasis – one of the most common chronic, inflammatory, hyperproliferative skin disorders of man – have long fascinated dermatologists, pathologists and biologists alike. Here, we have a model disease that offers to study neuroectodermal-mesenchymal interactions in the widest sense possible. Epithelial, endothelial, and hematopoietic cells as well as neurons projecting into the skin apparently all interact with each other to generate the characteristic psoriatic lesion. For decades, the ongoing controversy on the molecular nature, choreography and hierarchy of these complex interactions e.g. between epidermal keratinocytes, T cells, neurotrophils, endothelial cells and sensory nerves has served as a driving force propelling investigative dermatology to ever new horizons. This debate has not only been at the heart of our quest to develop more effective forms of therapy for this socially crippling disease, but it also has profoundly influenced how we view the skin as a whole: the numerous competing theories on the pathogenesis of psoriasis published so far also are reflections on the evolution of mainstream thought in skin biology over the last decades. These days, conventional wisdom – infatuated with a T-cell-centered approach to inflammatory skin diseases – portrays psoriasis as an autoimmune disease, where misguided T lymphocyte activities cause secondary epithelial abnormalities. And yet, as this CONTROVERSIES feature reminds us, some authoritative “pockets of academic resistance” are still quite alive, and interpret psoriasis e.g. as a genetically determined, abnormal epithelial response pattern to infectious and/or physicochemical skin insults. Weighing the corresponding lines of argumentation is not only an intriguing, clinically relevant intellectual exercise, but also serves as a wonderful instrument for questioning our own views of the skin universe and its patterns of deviation from a state of homeostasis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 127 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Anthralin is a well-established and widely used compound for topical treatment of psoriasis. In recent years attention has been focused on the anti-inflammatory properties of anthralin, with particular reference to psoriasis. In this study the effect of anthralin on human monocyte chemotaxis, superoxide-anion generation, and enzyme degranulation, were investigated. For comparison, the effect of the clinically inactive anthralin derivative danthrone and the solvent (acetone) were also studied. The results show that anthralin potently inhibits stimulated human monocyte superoxide-anion generation and enzyme degranulation, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of as low as 0.02 μg/ml. Chemotactic migration of monocytes, however, was only affected when very high doses of anthralin (10 μg/ml) were used for pretreatment of the cells. Danthrone, up to a concentration of 10 μg/ml, or acetone alone (0.1%, v/v), did not inhibit the monocyte functions tested. Our results indicate that anthralin at pharmacological concentrations is a potent and selective inhibitor of human monocyte pro-inflammatory activities, by inhibiting respiratory burst activity (e.g. superoxide-anion generation) and enzyme degranulation, without affecting chemotactic migration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 109 (1983), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Chemotactic activities of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were determined in twenty patients with psoriasis and twenty healthy control persons. After serial dilution of the complement split product C5a and the formylated tripeptide f-met-Ieu-phe (FMLP), chemotaxis profiles showed that PMN migration toward both chemotaxins was significantly increased in psoriasis. In addition, PMN from psoriatic patients responded to chemotaxins at much lower concentrations compared with controls.The liberation of (lysosomal) β-glucuronidase was also determined in cytochalasin B-treated cells confronted with increased concentrations of the chemotaxins. Secretion of this marker enzyme started at lower concentrations in PMN derived from psoriatic patients.Our observations demonstrate migratory and secretory hyper-responsiveness of PMN from psoriatic patients. This may play a role in perpetuating the psoriatic tissue reaction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 119 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We used a biotinylated antibody ELISA technique to measure plasma levels of lactoferrin (LF) and the LF content of peripheral blood PMN in 20 patients with psoriasis, 21, with eczema or other inflammatory skin conditions, 19 patients with malignant skin tumours and 20 healthy control individuals.In psoriasis, plasma LF levels were significantly increased compared with levels in the other skin conditions and in the healthy controls (P 〈 0.01). Furthermore, in psoriasis the LF content of circulating PMN was decreased.These findings provide further evidence that in psoriasis systemic activation (‘priming’) of circulating PMN may take place.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 103 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The chemotactic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) directed against serum was determined in a modified Boyden chamber assay. In a total of 176 experiments PMNs and sera from healthy controls were compared with PMNs and sera from patients with psoriasis. When PMNs from patients with psoriasis were confronted with psoriatic serum greatly enhanced chemotaxis was demonstrated. Non-psoriatic PMNs in the presence of psoriatic serum showed no enhancement. However, psoriatic PMNs in the presence of normal serum were chemotactically more active compared to non-psoriatic PMNs. Heat inactivation (56°C, 30 min) reduced the chemotactic activity of all sera by nearly 50%. However in psoriatic sera the enhancement of chemotaxis was still present after heat treatment. The results indicate the presence of a functional abnormality of chemotaxis in psoriasis. This is likely to be caused by the in situ generation of chemotactically active fragments of complement. Experiments showing increased chemotactic activity of sera exposed to migrating PMNs support this concept.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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