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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 82 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The motor signs of Parkinson's disease have been partly attributed to an overinhibition of the external globus pallidus (GP) that results from hyperactivity of striatopallidal GABA/enkephalinergic neurons. The goals of this study were to measure basal levels of extracellular fluid GABA in the GP of normal cats, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated parkinsonian cats and cats spontaneously recovered from MPTP-induced parkinsonism, and to examine the effects of opioid receptor activation on potassium (K+)-evoked GABA release in the GP in these animals. Basal GP GABA levels were increased 75% from normal in parkinsonian animals 1 week after MPTP administration and returned to control levels in recovered animals 6 weeks afterMPTP administration. No significant differences were observed in K+-evoked GABA release across conditions. The opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2]-Met-Enkephalinamide (DALA) significantly attenuated K+-evoked GABA release in the GP of MPTP-treated symptomatic and recovered cats, but had no significant effect on GABA release in normal animals. These data show that basal GP GABA levels are elevated coincident with expression of parkinsonian signs and return to normal in animals that have functionally compensated for a nigrostriatal lesion. DALA-induced inhibition of pallidal GABA release after a dopamine-depleting lesion, suggests that enkephalin may attenuate GABA release in the GP specifically after striatal dopamine loss.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Journal of neurochemistry 72 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract : This study directly assessed striatal dopamine (DA) uptake rates and peak release in response to KCl in normal, symptomatic, and recovered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated cats using in vivo electrochemistry. DA uptake rates measured after direct application of known concentrations of DA to the striatum were slowed significantly in both dorsal and ventral striatum in symptomatic cats compared with rates recorded in normal animals. DA uptake rates remained significantly slowed in recovered cats and were not significantly different from the rates recorded in symptomatic animals. In symptomatic cats, both DA uptake rates and the signal recorded in response to KCl stimulation were significantly decreased from normal in all dorsal and ventral striatal regions sampled. Reduction/oxidation (redox) ratios recorded in response to KCl stimulation suggested DA to be the predominant electroactive species. In spontaneously recovered MPTP-treated cats, recordings in the ventral striatum subsequent to KCl stimulation again suggested DA to be the predominant electroactive species released, and peak levels were significantly higher than those recorded in symptomatic animals. In the dorsal striatum of recovered cats, redox ratios recorded subsequent to KCl stimulation suggested serotonin rather than DA to be the predominant electroactive species released. Peak levels of release in the dorsal striatum were not significantly greater than those recorded in symptomatic animals. These results suggest that in spontaneously recovered MPTP-treated cats, there is partial recovery of ventral striatal DAergic terminals, persistent loss of dorsal striatal DAergic terminals, and a down-regulation of DA transporter number/function throughout the striatum. These processes may contribute to volume transmission of DA in the striatum and promote functional recovery.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 53 (1988), S. 710-712 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Degradation of Ba2YCu3O6.9 films on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates is shown to proceed by barium depletion from the film and barium zirconate formation. This process is accompanied by a decrease in the temperature of zero resistivity and ultimately produces Y2Cu2O5 and CuO. BaZrO3 is, however, found to be inert to Ba2YCu3O6.9 at 950 °C. Use of a truly chemically inert substrate material may permit extended heat treatment of films without degradation due to substrate interactions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    European journal of neuroscience 20 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disorder consisting of motor deficits coupled with dysfunction in cognitive domains that are dependent upon the integrity of the frontal lobes and/or the fronto-striatal axis. Although it is increasingly acknowledged that PD patients have attentional and executive function deficits, it has been difficult to model these in nonhuman primates because of the nature of the cognitive tasks that have been used previously. The present studies were conducted to further define the nature of the cognitive impairment in a nonhuman primate model of early parkinsonism consequent to chronic low dose MPTP exposure and to further validate this model in monkeys trained to perform a battery of attentional and executive function tasks. Following chronic low dose MPTP exposure, monkeys developed deficits in maintenance of a response set as well problems in shifting attentional sets, suggesting decreased mental flexibility. On other tasks inattentiveness, an impaired ability to sustain spatial attention or to focus attention, a deficit in motor readiness and planning, and impaired time estimation were also observed. These results provide direct evidence of attention and executive function deficits in a nonhuman primate model of early parkinsonism. Based on these findings, we suggest that in addition to being useful for studying the cognitive deficits related to early PD and for developing new therapeutics for these problems, this model and these testing procedures may also provide a useful large animal model for studying attention deficit disorder and for developing new therapeutics for that condition as well.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 46 (1982), S. 311-314 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Globus pallidus ; Sensory processing ; Trigeminal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The somatosensory properties of globus pallidus (GP) neurons were assessed in awake restrained cats. Forty-two percent of GP units responded to stimulation of the face. Receptive fields were typically bilateral (49%) or contralateral and 75% included perioral tissue. Responsive units showed little ability to encode force. In contrast, cells were sensitive to changes in stimulus location within the receptive zone. The majority of cells so tested showed enhanced responding to stimuli applied within the perioral zone. Many (42%) of the cells which responded to brushing of the guard hairs or vibrissa were directionally sensitive. Of those, 89% showed enhanced responding to stimuli which moved toward the front of the mouth. These data were discussed in relation to a role of the GP in feedback regulated head positioning movements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ; Zeugmatographic imaging ; Three-dimensional imaging ; Three-dimensional NMR zeugmatography ; NMR Zeugmatography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A three-dimensional image of a preserved human brain, resolved into cubical 0.03 cm3 volume elements, has been obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) zeugmatography, using a twostage reconstruction technique. Intensities in such images represent concentrations of water and other liquids or liquid-like substances. The image has been displayed as computer-generated multiple transverse, coronal and sagittal sections, so as to display most clearly a number of anatomical features. The potential of this technique in physiological research and clinical practice is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-11-27
    Description: Site-2 proteases (S2Ps) are intramembrane metalloproteases that cleave transmembrane substrates in all domains of life. Many S2Ps, including human S2P and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rip1, have multiple substrates in vivo, which are often transcriptional regulators. However, S2Ps will also cleave transmembrane sequences of nonsubstrate proteins, suggesting additional specificity determinants. Many S2Ps...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-23
    Description: Commentary on: Rudmik L , Soler ZM. Medical therapies for adult chronic sinusitis: a systematic review. JAMA 2015 ; 314 : 926 –39. Context Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) affects between 7% and 15.5% of the US population. In Europe, the latest estimates put prevalence at 10.9%. 1 2 The condition produces symptoms such as nasal congestion, facial pressure/pain, purulent nasal drainage and is associated with significant fatigue and decreased productivity. While complications from the disease are rare, CRS is often treated with antibiotics, based on an older understanding that CRS results from bacterial infection. Newer data strongly suggest that CRS results from chronic inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa. 3 Among otolaryngologists, the treatment strategy has shifted towards the use of antiinflammatory medications, such as topical and systemic corticosteroids. Choosing the optimal, evidenced-based treatment strategy depends on whether the patient has CRS with or without polyps. 1 Methods ...
    Keywords: Immunology (including allergy), Radiology, Drugs: musculoskeletal and joint diseases, Surgical diagnostic tests, Clinical diagnostic tests, Radiology (diagnostics), Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology
    Print ISSN: 1356-5524
    Electronic ISSN: 1473-6810
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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