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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 128 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease in which autoantibodies have clearly been shown to be pathogenic. Because autoantibodies are also found in uninvofved skin, further mechanisms may be important in the development of pemphigus lesions. In addition to granulocytes, mononuclear cells are commonly found in pemphigus lesions. To elucidate the role of mononuclear cells in the pathology of this disease, we determined the levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in blister fluid and serum samples from pemphigus patients prior to treatment. The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is expressed on activated mononuclear cells. Depending on its rate of synthesis, a portion is released from the cell surface in a soluble form (sIL-2R), In blister fluid, sIL-2R levels were 2186±288 U/ml (±SD), which was significantly higher than levels in concurrently obtained serum samples (1299±165 U/ml: P〈0.001). In suction blisters in volunteers, and in patients with second-degree burns or friction-induced bullae, sIL-2R levels were normal in both blister fluid and serum. In pemphigus patients, sIL,-2R serum levels continuously declined during systemic therapy, correlating with disease activity, Immunohistological studies demonstrated a marked increase in IL-2R+ cells in both the epidermis and dermis of lesional skin compared with perilesional skin. In the dermis, CD3+ T cells predominated, whereas monocytes/macrophages were most frequent in the epidermis. In pemphigus vulgaris, monocytes/macrophages were restricted to the basal keratinocytes. whereas in pemphigus foliaceus, they were found throughout the lesional epidermis. Our data indicate that activated mononuclear cells are present in lesional skin of pemphigus patients, and may contribute to the pathology of this disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 436.2005, 7050, E4-, (2 S.) 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Muscheler et al. claim that the solar activity affecting cosmic rays was much higher in the past than we deduced from 14C measurements. However, this claim is based on a problematic normalization and is in conflict with independent results, such as the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 408 (2000), S. 445-447 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The most striking feature of the Sun's magnetic field is its cyclic behaviour. The number of sunspots, which are dark regions of strong magnetic field on the Sun's surface, varies with a period of about 11 years. Superposed on this cycle are secular changes that occur on timescales of ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A report is given of a micro method for the detection of organically bound thiocyanogen with sodium sulfite by spot test analysis. 36 examples are included.
    Abstract: Résumé On communique un microprocédé pour la recherche des thiocyanates organiques par le sulfite de sodium, en opérant par analyse à la touche, sur 36 composés thiocyaniques aromatiques étudiés.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird über ein Mikroverfahren zum Nachweis von organisch gebundenem Rhodan mit Natriumsulfit nach der Arbeitsweise der Tüpfelanalyse an Hand von 36 geprüften organischen Rhodanverbindungen berichtet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Cytarabine ocfosfate ; AraC ; CLL ; Pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Cytarabine ocfosfate (YNK01) is a novel orally applicable prodrug of cytosine arabinoside. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have revealed a prolonged release of the cytotoxic agent cytosine arabinoside (araC) from hepatocytes into the systemic circulation, resulting in a half-life of approximately 24 h for araC. The specific pharmacokinetic characteristics of cytarabine ocfosfate lead to a prolonged exposure of leukemic cells to this antineoplastic agent during the 14-day cycle. The oral applicability during outpatient treatment and the sustained antineoplastic activity of araC against slowly proliferating leukemic B-cells suggest that cytarabine ocfosfate might be a useful drug in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Four years after diagnosis of B-CLL, a 50-year-old patient was started on cytarabine ocfosfate. Sequentially, the patient's disease had proved refractory to treatment with chlorambucil/prednisone (31 months), fludarabine (5 months), and prednimustine/mitoxantrone (3 months). These established regimens were discontinued because of increasing lymphocytosis, significant thrombocytopenia, and progressive B-symptoms. Following three cycles of cytarabine ocfosfate B-symptoms resolved, lymphadenopathy disappeared, and thrombocytopenia was significantly reduced. The patient has been free of these symptoms on a dosage of 1500 mg cytarabine ocfosfate/day (cycle of 14 days with intervals of 14–21 days) for 24 months and remains in an ongoing partial remission.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 284 (1992), S. 141-145 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Bullous pemphigoid ; Interleukin-2 receptor ; Soluble interleukin-2 receptor ; Immunohistology ; Cell-mediated immunity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is mainly expressed on activated T cells. Depending on its rate of synthesis, a portion is released from the cell surface as soluble IL-2R (sIL-2R). Since the role of mononuclear cells in the pathology of bullous pemphigoid (BP) is not well understood, we determined the sIL-2R in both blister fluid and serum of 15 BP patients with generalized disease before initiating systemic treatment. In addition, we obtained both lesional and perilesional skin biopsies and examined the mononuclear infiltrate with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. In BP blisters, sIL-2R levels were significantly increased (2070±350 U/ml), (±SEM) compared with serum samples taken at the time of blister puncture (1340±290 U/ml). In six patients with blisters due to second-degree burns or friction and in five suction blister volunteers, sIL-2R levels were normal in both blisters and serum. In BP, elevated serum levels decreased to normal during therapy, correlating with disease activity. The immunohistology showed that 30% of mononuclear cells in the dermal infiltrate of lesional skin expressed the IL-2R, whereas only 15% were positive in perilesional skin. IL-2R-positive cells are the most likely source of the shed receptor in BP blisters. Our results indicate the presence of activated T cells in lesions and peripheral blood of BP and thus underline the importance of cell-mediated immune mechanisms in the pathology of this disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 244 (1972), S. 206-207 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Metastases of malignant melanoma ; Laboratory analysis ; Blood sedimentation rate ; Lactate-Dehydrogenase ; Total protein (Serum) ; Gamma-globulin (Serum) ; Copper (Serum)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 431 (2004), S. 1084-1087 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Direct observations of sunspot numbers are available for the past four centuries, but longer time series are required, for example, for the identification of a possible solar influence on climate and for testing models of the solar dynamo. Here we report a reconstruction of the sunspot number ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Annales geophysicae 17 (1999), S. 578-582 
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere (‘convective collapse’) are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 105 G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Solar physics 153 (1994), S. 449-452 
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The magnetic flux tubes that rise across the convection zone to produce active regions are shown to develop a difference in inclination between their preceding and follower sides. This asymmetry is such that the follower wing is more vertical (i.e., closer to the radial direction) than the preceding side. An asymmetry of this kind can be obtained as a natural consequence of the conservation of angular momentum along the rise. This process may explain a number of the observed asymmetries in morphology and behavior of the preceding and follower parts of the active regions. We present results of numerical simulations showing this effect and discuss possible observational consequences.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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