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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 145 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background In the response to T-helper cell (Th1)-type cytokines and interactions with pathogens, high levels of nitric oxide (NO) are produced by activated macrophages expressing the inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The role and importance of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) such as NO and peroxynitrite in the host response to diseases caused by intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis is unclear. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of local production of NO and peroxynitrite in borderline leprosy by using antibodies against iNOS and the product of peroxynitrite, nitrotyrosine (NT). Methods We detected the presence of iNOS and NT in skin biopsies from borderline leprosy patients, with and without reversal reaction (RR), by immunohistochemistry (n = 26). Results In general, the granulomas from borderline leprosy lesions with and without RR showed high and specific expression of iNOS and NT. Moreover, strong immunoreactivity to iNOS and NT was observed in granulomas surrounding and infiltrating dermal nerves. The expression of iNOS and NT was also strong in keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells in close relation to the granulomatous reaction. In contrast, normal human skin showed no expression of iNOS and NT in these cells. Conclusions We conclude that iNOS and NT are expressed in granulomas from borderline leprosy patients with and without RR and propose that RNIs might be involved in the nerve damage following RR in leprosy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Nerve damage is a common and disabling feature of leprosy, with unclear aetiology. It has been reported that the peroxidizing agents of myelin lipids—nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite—are produced in leprosy skin lesions.Objectives  To investigate the localization of nitrotyrosine (NT)—a local end-product of peroxynitrite—in leprosy lesions where dermal nerves are affected by a granulomatous reaction.Methods  We investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy the localization of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and NT in biopsies exhibiting dermal nerves from patients with untreated leprosy.Results  There were abundant NT-positive and iNOS-positive macrophages in the borderline leprosy granulomas infiltrating peripheral nerves identified by light microscopy, S-100 and neurofilament immunostaining. Immunoelectron microscopy showed NT reactivity in neurofilament aggregates and in the cell wall of Mycobacterium leprae.Conclusions  Our results suggest that NO and peroxynitrite could be involved in the nerve damage following borderline leprosy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0458
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Schwerhörigkeit ; Implantierbare Hörgeräte ; Elektronisches Hörimplantat ; TICA ; Key words Sensorineural hearing loss ; Implantable hearing aid ; Electronic hearing implant ; TICA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Recently, Zenner et al. implanted the first totally implantable electronic hearing devices in patients with SNHL (HNO 46 [1998] 844–852). In the present report, technical and audiological features of the implant TICA are published. The development of the piezoelectric transducer and the microphone for implantation in the posterior wall of the auditory canal as components for the present fully implantable hearing system has already been described (HNO 45, 1997, 792–880). Here we report about our experience with the electronic main module that completes the TICA LZ 3001 system. This module is suited for implantation in the mastoid bone and contains the signal-processing electronics and an integrated battery that can be recharged transcutaneously with a portable charger. The recharging time is around 2 h for an implant operating time of 50h. The microphone and transducer connectors allow for easy replacement of the main module when the battery lifetime is reached. This lifetime is around 3–5 years. A small wireless remote control allows volume adjustment, contains an on/off switch, and permits selection of four different individual hearing programs. The basic audiological features are provided by a flexible, digitally programmable 3-channel-AGC-system with a peak clipping function. The total bandwidth is around 10 kHz. To our knowledge this is the first fully implantable hearing system that has been in implanted in humans.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Kürzlich wurde über die Entwicklung eines elektromechanischen, piezoelektrischen Wandlers und eines Mikrofons zum subkutanen Einbau in die hintere Gehörgangswand als Komponenten eines zukünftigen vollständig implantierbaren Hörsystems für Innenohrschwerhörige berichtet (HNO 45, 1997, 792–880). Zwischenzeitlich konnte die Entwicklung eines elektronischen Hauptmoduls zur Implantation auf dem Planum mastoideum abgeschlossen werden, das diese Mikrofone und Wandler zu dem kompletten Hörimplantat TICA® LZ 3001 ergänzt. Dieses Hauptmodul enthält neben der signalverarbeitenden Elektronik eine spezielle Batterie, die transkutan mit einem portablen Ladegerät nachgeladen wird. Nach einer Volladung, die ca. 2 h benötigt, ist das Implantat für rund 50 h kontinuierlich betriebsbereit. Das Ladegerät wird ähnlich wie bei Mobiltelefonen in einer netzbetriebenen Station nachgeladen. Lösbare Steckverbindungen zu Mikrofon und Wandler ermöglichen den einfachen operativen Austausch des Hauptmoduls, wenn die Batterielebensdauer erreicht ist. Dies wird nach ca. 3–5 Jahren erwartet. Dem Patienten steht eine kleine, drahtlose Fernbedienung zur Verfügung, mit der Lautstärke, Ein/Aus sowie 4 Hörprogramme für unterschiedliche Hörsituationen eingestellt werden können. Die grundlegenden audiologischen Eigenschaften sind durch ein flexibel digital programmierbares 3-Kanal-AGC-System mit Peak-clipping-Funktion gegeben. Die gesamte Übertragungsbandbreite beträgt ca. 10 kHz. Das vollimplantierbare Hörsystem wurde im Rahmen der klinischen Erprobung Anfang Juni 1998 erstmals am Menschen angewendet.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-01-10
    Description: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are highly correlated, but the underlying mechanisms are only partly understood. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the relationships between plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1, a key factor in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, and various blood pressure indices. Healthy adults aged 25 to 41 years were enrolled in a population-based study. Established cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or a body mass index 〉35 kg/m 2 were exclusion criteria. Fasting plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels as determined with a novel high-sensitive assay and ambulatory blood pressure data were available in 1479 participants not using antihypertensive treatment. Median age of our population was 38 years. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure across increasing glucagon-like peptide-1 quartiles were 120.6, 122.8, 123.2, and 124.9 mm Hg and 77.1, 78.7, 78.9, and 79.9 mm Hg, respectively. We found a linear relationship of glucagon-like peptide-1 with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure after multivariable adjustment (β per 1 log-unit increase 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–3.00; P 〈0.0001 for systolic and 1.22; 0.47–1.97; P =0.002 for diastolic blood pressure). In separate analyses, glucagon-like peptide-1 was significantly related to both awake (β per 1 log-unit increase 2.05; 1.02–3.09; P =0.0001 for systolic and 1.15; 0.35–1.96; P =0.005 for diastolic blood pressure) and asleep blood pressure (β per 1 log-unit increase 1.34; 0.26–2.42; P =0.01 for systolic and 1.05; 0.26–1.84; P =0.009 for diastolic blood pressure). In conclusion, plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 are significantly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels.
    Keywords: Other diabetes, Epidemiology
    Print ISSN: 0194-911X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-05-14
    Description: BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of cardiac troponin (cTn) levels with conventional and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in young and healthy adults. METHODS We performed a population based cross-sectional analysis among 2,072 young and healthy adults aged 25–41 years free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. cTnI was measured using a highly sensitive (hs) assay. The relationships of high sensitivity cardiac tropononin I (hs-cTnI) with office and 24-hour BP were assessed using multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS Median age was 37 years and 975 (47%) participants were male. hs-cTnI levels were detectable in 2,061 (99.5%) individuals. Median (interquartile range) hs-cTnI levels were 0.98 (0.71; 1.64) ng/L among men and 0.48 (0.33; 0.71) ng/L among women. Systolic BP, but not diastolic BP, gradually increased across hs-cTnI quartiles (118, 120, 121, and 122 mm Hg for conventional BP; P = 0.0002; 122, 123, 124, and 124 mm Hg for 24-hour BP, P = 0.0001). In multivariable linear regression analyses, the β estimates for systolic BP per 1-unit increase in log transformed hs-cTnI were 2.52 for conventional BP ( P = 0.0001); 2.75 for 24-hour BP ( P 〈 0.0001); 2.71 and 2.41 ( P 〈 0.0001 and P = 0.0002) for day and nighttime BP, respectively. There was a significant relationship between hs-cTnI and the Sokolow–Lyon Index (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.09 (1.37; 3.18), P 〈 0.001). CONCLUSION Using a hs assay, hs-cTnI was detectable in virtually all participants of a young and healthy population. hs-cTnI was independently associated with systolic BP and left ventricular hypertrophy.
    Print ISSN: 0895-7061
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-1905
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-08-09
    Description: Answering a question of Cochrane and Pinner, we prove that, for any 〉 0, sufficiently large prime number p and an arbitrary multiplicative subgroup R of the field F p * , p ≤ | R | ≤ p 2/3– , the following holds | R ± R | ≥ | R | 3/2+ , where 〉 0 depends on only.
    Print ISSN: 0033-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-3847
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-10-09
    Description: Mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP) values are considered to be lower than conventional BP values, but data on this relation among younger individuals 〈50 years are scarce. Conventional and 24-hour ambulatory BP were measured in 9550 individuals not taking antihypertensive treatment from 13 population-based cohorts. We compared individual differences between daytime ambulatory and conventional BP according to 10-year age categories. Age-specific prevalences of white coat and masked hypertension were calculated. Among individuals aged 18 to 30, 30 to 40, and 40 to 50 years, mean daytime BP was significantly higher than the corresponding conventional BP (6.0, 5.2, and 4.7 mm Hg for systolic; 2.5, 2.7, and 1.7 mm Hg for diastolic BP; all P 〈0.0001). In individuals aged 60 to 70 and ≥70 years, conventional BP was significantly higher than daytime ambulatory BP (5.0 and 13.0 mm Hg for systolic; 2.0 and 4.2 mm Hg for diastolic BP; all P 〈0.0001).The prevalence of white coat hypertension exponentially increased from 2.2% to 19.5% from those aged 18 to 30 years to those aged ≥70 years, with little variation between men and women (8.0% versus 6.1%; P =0.0003). Masked hypertension was more prevalent among men (21.1% versus 11.4%; P 〈0.0001). The age-specific prevalences of masked hypertension were 18.2%, 27.3%, 27.8%, 20.1%, 13.6%, and 10.2% among men and 9.0%, 9.9%, 12.2%, 11.9%, 14.7%, and 12.1% among women. In conclusion, this large collaborative analysis showed that the relation between daytime ambulatory and conventional BP strongly varies by age. These findings may have implications for diagnosing hypertension and its subtypes in clinical practice.
    Keywords: Other hypertension
    Print ISSN: 0194-911X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-12-29
    Description: A study of the activation of the light-induced degradation in compensated n -type Czochralski grown silicon is presented. A kinetic model is established that verifies the existence of both the fast and the slow components known from p -type and proves the quadratic dependence of the defect generation rates of both defects on the hole concentration. The model allows for the description of lifetime degradation kinetics in compensated n -type silicon under various intensities and is in accordance with the findings for p -type silicon. We found that the final concentrations of the slow defect component in compensated n -type silicon only depend on the interstitial oxygen concentration and on neither the boron concentration nor the equilibrium electron concentration n 0 . The final concentrations of the fast defect component slightly increase with increasing boron concentration. The results on n -type silicon give new insight to the origin of the BO defect and question the existing models for the defect composition.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
    Topics: Physics
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