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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 255 (1975), S. 79-80 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Tryptophan pyrrolase activity is assayed on the basis of the amount of kynurenine produced from tryptophan in homogenates of the respective insect tissues. This assay, however, is usually hampered by microbial contamination and the lack of a good technique for the direct determination of the ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Tetrahedron Letters 8 (1967), S. 4491-4493 
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 56 (1997), S. 63-70 
    ISSN: 0340-1855
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Rheumatoide ; Arthritis ; Autoantikörper ; Autoantigen ; 68k-Antigen ; Anti-68k-Antikörper ; Key words Rheumatoid arthritis ; autoantibodies ; autoantigen ; 68k antigen ; anti-68k antibodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Diagnostik vieler rheumatischer Systemerkrankungen wird heute durch den Nachweis von Autoantikörpern unterstützt und erleichtert. Für die Serodiagnostik der Rheumatoiden Arthritis (RA) stehen nur die doch wenig spezifischen Rheumafaktoren zur Verfügung. Mit dem Ziel, neue krankheitsspezifische Autoantikörper nachzuweisen, erfolgte eine besondere Proteinaufarbeitung aus Synovialisbiopsien und anderen Geweben. Western Blots der gewonnenen Proteine wurden eingesetzt, um Seren von RA-Patienten und solchen mit anderen rheumatischen Erkrankungen zu untersuchen. Die signifikanteste Immunreaktion von RA-Patienten richtete sich gegen ein 68k-Antigen, welches vermutlich ubiquitär exprimiert wird, da es nicht nur in Synovialis, sondern in allen weiteren untersuchten Humangeweben und HeLa-Zellen nachgewiesen werden konnte. Der isoelektrische Punkt liegt bei 5,1, das Protein ist O-glykosyliert und im endoplasmatischen Retikulum und/oder Cytoplasma lokalisiert. Antikörper gegen dieses 68k-Antigen waren bei 110 von 167 RA-Patienten nachzuweisen, was einer Sensitivität von 66% entspricht. Ihr Vorkommen war unabhängig vom Rheumafaktornachweis, da sie auch bei 7 von 12 seronegativen RA-Patienten zu finden waren, dagegen nur bei einem Patienten aus einer Kontrollgruppe von 98 Patienten mit anderen rheumatologischen Krankheitsbildern, bei einem von 22 HIV-Patienten und überhaupt nicht bei 55 Gesunden. Daraus resultiert eine RA-Spezifität für diesen Antikörper von 99%. Wegen der auffälligen Krankheitsspezifität der anti-68k-Antikörper liegt es nahe, nach korrespondierenden autoreaktiven T-Zellen zu suchen, um die Rolle dieser neuen Autoreaktivität in dem Pathomechanismus der RA zu analysieren.
    Notes: Summary Despite commonly applied clinical criteria, the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often remains difficult, thus delaying on suitable early treatment. In search for a test furthering the early and reliable diagnosis of RA, we have screened for novel disease specific autoantibodies. To this end proteins were isolated from synovial membranes and other tissues following a special protein purification protocol, and these were separated electrophoretically. Western blots were then used to screen sera of RA patients and of individuals suffering from other rheumatic diseases for antibodies to any of these proteins. The most prominent RA specific immunoreaction was with a 68k antigen, occurring in 110 of 167 RA patients (sensitivity is 66%). The antibody could also be identified in seronegative RA patients but not in healthy individuals (55 tested), in only 1 SLE patient of a group of 98 patients with other rheumatic diseases and in 1 out of 22 HIV patients, resulting in a specificity of 99%. Moreover, the anti-68k antibody could be correlated with a more severe course of RA. 13 out of 20 anti-68k positive RA patients (58%) had subcutaneous nodules, while only 2 out of 11 anti-68k negative (20%) did. The mean sedimentation rate of these antibody positive patients was 51mm/h and 26mm/h for the negative respectively. The 68k antigen was shown to be present in all human tissues investigated and is probably ubiquitously expressed. It is either located in the endoplasmatic reticulum or cytoplasm or both. Its isoelectric point is 5.1. It proved to be O-glycosylated and contains only one or a few sugar residues as the untreated and the deglycosylated antigen identical electrophoretical mobilities. The patient derived anti-68k antibodies were directed against the sugar residue: deglycosylation of the antigen completely abolished its immunoreactivity. N-acetylglucosamine competes with the antibody for binding the 68k antigen. The physicochemical data of the 68k antigen argue against identity with one of the autoantigens in this molecular mass range already known to be associated with RA or other autoimmune diseases. It is neither identical to the 62k human antigen (EBNA-1) nor to RA33 (A2hnRNP), the 50k Sa antigen or the Hsp70 class of heatshock proteins. It is argued that the particular method of protein purification applied in combination with separation via SDS-PAGE in the presence of urea, made it possible to detect a hitherto unidentified antigen. Considering the striking disease specificity of the anti-68k antibody, it is now worthwhile to look for corresponding autoreactive T cells in order to analyse its role in the pathogenesis of RA.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The protein content of spermatocyte nuclei from X/Y males and mutants of D. hydei which lack different Y chromosomal loop forming sites, was compared with that of X/0 males in 14C/3H double labelling experiments. Proteins of 45,000, 52,000, 54,000, 66,000, 80,000, 84,000, and 170,000 Dalton are found to be enriched in nuclei containing two or more active Y chromosomal loop forming sites. These proteins are also present in the nuclei of X0 males. In the complete absence of the Y-chromosomal loops proteins of 35,000, 46,000, 58,000 and 110,000 Dalton become enriched in the spermatocyte nuclei. — Analysis of the nuclear RNP of spermatocytes led to the isolation of an hnRNP-containing fraction with an S-value of 〉900S (RNP-PP). — In the RNP-PP of XY males labelled protein material associated with hnRNA is enriched by a factor of ∼3 in respect to the X0 genotype. The nuclear RNP has a heterogenous buoyant density in CsCl of p = 1.33 to 1.43 g/cm3. RNase T1 treatment of the crude nuclear RNP from XY males prior to sucrose gradient analysis shows that the 66,000 Dalton protein which is also strongly enriched in the nuclei in the presence of active Y chromosomal loop forming sites, is the main protein associated with protected RNA-sequences of 80–120 and 200–300 nucleotides in length. Competitive nitrocellulose filter binding assays reveal that the 66,000 Dalton protein predominantly forms in 2 M NaCl stable RNA/protein complexes with the poly A +hnRNA of the RNP-PP. These RNP complexes have a buoyant density of p = 1.43 g/cm3 in CsCl. The results are discussed in relation to the nuclear structure and the function of the Y chromosomal loops during spermatogenesis in Drosophila hydei.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In wild-type Drosophila hydei (genotype X/Y) four different primary spermatocyte nuclear glycoproteins, classified as non-Y encoded because of their occurrence in X/O genotypes, were demonstrated to possess a few epitopes that depended on formation of the Y chromosomal giant lampbrush loops threads (th; Mr 55000 proteins) or pseudonucleolus (ps; Mr 38000, 58000 and 98000 proteins). The epitopes reacted with lectins and/or antibodies in vitro (lectin-/immunoreplica of primary spermatocyte total nuclear protein), and were lacking in mutants not possessing the respective loops. Those dependent on ps reacted with human sera. Epitopes restricted to proteins from th-forming spermatocytes reacted with lectin Con A (specific for d-Man and/or d-Glc) and antibodies directed against mouse immunoglobulins (AIA). In situ experiments (immunofluorescence microscopy of primary spermatocyte nuclei) revealed antibody cross-reactions with the respective loops. The reagents stained the distal (fused) sections and proximal (compact) parts of ps (human sera) or the proximal (compact) parts of th (AIA). Reaction with the latter loops was significantly repressed after absorption of AIA with the l-Fuc carbohydrate unit, classifying the AIA as fucosyl specific, and the epitopes along th as l-Fuc carbohydrate units.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-9949
    Keywords: Ankylosing Spondylitis ; Antibodies ; Anti-93D Antibody ; Cytoimmunofluorescence ; Polytene Chromosomes of Drosophila Melanogaster ; Immunoblotting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Polytene chromosomes of salivary glands as well as nuclear proteins from Kc-cells of Drosophila melanogaster have been used as substrate to identify and evaluate the diagnostic value of crossreacting antibodies present in sera of AS patients. The diagnostic significance of the recently described anti-93D antibody (Lakomek et al., 1984) was confirmed by screening sera of patients with definite or suspected AS using cytoimmunofluorescence on the polytene chromosomes. In addition, four new antibodies could be identified in AS sera by immunoblotting. Simultaneous detection of these antibodies supports the diagnosis of AS and is most useful in diagnosis of early stages of this disease.
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