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  • 1
    Keywords: Hochschulschrift
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (65 Blatt = 2 MB) , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-03-19
    Description: Ocean acidification (OA), the dissolution of excess anthropogenic carbon dioxide in ocean waters, is a potential stressor to many marine fish species. Whether species have the potential to acclimate and adapt to changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry is still largely unanswered. Simulation experiments across several generations are challenging for large commercially exploited species because of their long generation times. For Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we present first data on the effects of parental acclimation to elevated aquatic CO2 on larval survival, a fundamental parameter determining population recruitment. The parental generation in this study was exposed to either ambient or elevated aquatic CO2 levels simulating end-of-century OA levels (~1100 µatm CO2) for six weeks prior to spawning. Upon fully reciprocal exposure of the F1 generation, we quantified larval survival, combined with two larval feeding regimes in order to investigate the potential effect of energy limitation. We found a significant reduction in larval survival at elevated CO2 that was partly compensated by parental acclimation to the same CO2 exposure. Such compensation was only observed in the treatment with high food availability. This complex 3-way interaction indicates that surplus metabolic resources need to be available to allow a transgenerational alleviation response to ocean acidification.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Temperature has a profound effect on the species composition and physiology of marine phytoplankton, a polyphyletic group of microbes responsible for half of global primary production. Here, we ask whether and how thermal reaction norms in a key calcifying species, the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, change as a result of 2.5 years of experimental evolution to a temperature ≈2°C below its upper thermal limit. Replicate experimental populations derived from a single genotype isolated from Norwegian coastal waters were grown at two temperatures for 2.5 years before assessing thermal responses at 6 temperatures ranging from 15 to 26°C, with pCO2 (400/1100/2200 μatm) as a fully factorial additional factor. The two selection temperatures (15°/26.3°C) led to a marked divergence of thermal reaction norms. Optimal growth temperatures were 0.7°C higher in experimental populations selected at 26.3°C than those selected at 15.0°C. An additional negative effect of high pCO2 on maximal growth rate (8% decrease relative to lowest level) was observed. Finally, the maximum persistence temperature (Tmax) differed by 1–3°C between experimental treatments, as a result of an interaction between pCO2 and the temperature selection. Taken together, we demonstrate that several attributes of thermal reaction norms in phytoplankton may change faster than the predicted progression of ocean warming.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    BioMed Central
    In:  BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17 (1).
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Background: The analysis of hybrid zones is crucial for gaining a mechanistic understanding of the process of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. Hybrid zones have been studied intensively in terrestrial and shallow-water ecosystems, but very little is known about their occurrence in deep-sea environments. Here we used diagnostic, single nucleotide polymorphisms in combination with one mitochondrial gene to re-examine prior hypotheses about a contact zone involving deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels, Bathymodiolus azoricus and B. puteoserpentis, living along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Results: Admixture was found to be asymmetric with respect to the parental species, while introgression was more widespread geographically than previously recognized. Admixed individuals with a majority of alleles from one of the parental species were most frequent in habitats corresponding to that species. Mussels found at a geographically intermediate vent field constituted a genetically mixed population that showed no evidence for hybrid incompatibilities, a finding that does not support a previously inferred tension zone model. Conclusions: Our analyses indicate that B. azoricus and B. puteoserpentis hybridize introgressively across a large geographic area without evidence for general hybrid incompatibilities. While these findings shed new light onto the genetic structure of this hybrid zone, many aspects about its nature still remain obscure. Our study sets a baseline for further research that should primarily focus on the acquisition of additional mussel samples and environmental data, a detailed exploration of vent areas and hidden populations as well as genomic analyses in both mussel hosts and their bacterial symbionts.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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    Format: archive
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Predicting the impacts of environmental change on marine organisms, food webs, and biogeochemical cycles presently relies almost exclusively on short-term physiological studies, while the possibility of adaptive evolution is often ignored. Here, we assess adaptive evolution in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a well-established model species in biological oceanography, in response to ocean acidification. We previously demonstrated that this globally important marine phytoplankton species adapts within 500 generations to elevated CO2. After 750 and 1000 generations, no further fitness increase occurred, and we observed phenotypic convergence between replicate populations. We then exposed adapted populations to two novel environments to investigate whether or not the underlying basis for high CO2-adaptation involves functional genetic divergence, assuming that different novel mutations become apparent via divergent pleiotropic effects. The novel environment “high light” did not reveal such genetic divergence whereas growth in a low-salinity environment revealed strong pleiotropic effects in high CO2 adapted populations, indicating divergent genetic bases for adaptation to high CO2. This suggests that pleiotropy plays an important role in adaptation of natural E. huxleyi populations to ocean acidification. Our study highlights the potential mutual benefits for oceanography and evolutionary biology of using ecologically important marine phytoplankton for microbial evolution experiments.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Highlights • Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs are a global problem, but difficult to quantify. • We tested the use of eelgrass δ15N as proxy of such inputs in the Baltic Sea. • The method revealed distinct spatial patterns in sewage N across a eutrophic bay. • Traditional eutrophication measures corroborated the results from δ15N values. • Eelgrass δ15N ratios have high potential as proxy of sewage-derived N in the Baltic. Eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Better management of this threat requires more accurate assessments of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs to coastal systems than can be obtained with traditional measures. Recently, primary producer N isotopic signatures have emerged as useful proxy of such inputs. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the applicability of this method using the widespread eelgrass (Zostera marina) in the highly eutrophic Baltic Sea. Spatial availability of sewage N across a bay with one major sewage outflow predicted by eelgrass δ15N was high near and downstream of the outflow compared to upstream, but returned to upstream levels within 4 km downstream from the outfall. General conclusions were corroborated by traditional eutrophication measures, but in contrast to these measures were fully quantitative. Eelgrass N isotope ratios therefore show high potential for coastal screens of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, and in other areas with eelgrass meadows
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Although ocean warming and acidification are recognized as two major anthropogenic perturbations of today’s oceans we know very little about how marine phytoplankton may respond via evolutionary change. We tested for adaptation to ocean warming in combination with ocean acidification in the globally important phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Temperature adaptation occurred independently of ocean acidification levels. Growth rates were up to 16% higher in populations adapted for one year to warming when assayed at their upper thermal tolerance limit. Particulate inorganic (PIC) and organic (POC) carbon production was restored to values under present-day ocean conditions, owing to adaptive evolution, and were 101% and 55% higher under combined warming and acidification, respectively, than in non-adapted controls. Cells also evolved to a smaller size while they recovered their initial PIC:POC ratio even under elevated CO2. The observed changes in coccolithophore growth, calcite and biomass production, cell size and elemental composition demonstrate the importance of evolutionary processes for phytoplankton performance in a future ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  Oikos, 84 (3). p. 398.
    Publication Date: 2015-02-09
    Description: In both terrestrial and aquatic environments introductions of non-indigenous species are continuing and represent one important component of global change. Negative biotic interactions by resident species may prevent successful invaders from becoming pests. Few experimental data are available on the presence and significance of such biotic resistance other than predation or competition. This study addresses the role of habitat structure provided by a native eelgrass (Zostera marina) canopy on growth and survival of the non-indigenous mussel Musculista senhousia, a habitat-modifying gregarious suspension feeder with strong effects on native infauna and eelgrass. In 2 southern California bays, a series of transplantation experiments using tagged mussels revealed that inside an eelgrass canopy, Musculista growth rates were reduced by more than half in 3 of 4 experiments compared to adjacent unvegetated areas. Musculista survival also decreased inside the vegetation in a 4-mo experiment. As one element of habitat structure, we tested the effects of eelgrass patch size, using natural (1 site) and planted (1 site) eelgrass patches of defined sizes. Growth rates of Musculista were highest outside the vegetation and decreased as eelgrass patch size increased. As a potential mechanism for the canopy effects, we suggest that Musculista receives less food inside the vegetation. In the experimental plots, the presence and spatial extent of the macrophyte canopy strongly affected near bottom (10 cm) horizontal water flow assessed with a direct dye tracking method. Reduced mussel growth rates were linearly associated with lower water flow, and presumably, food flux. Over a period of 7 mo, food resources (particulate chlorophyll a) were consistently lower 1 and 5 cm above the sea floor inside eelgrass patches compared to the sand flat. The reduction in food availability matched the growth reduction of Musculista. Also, mussel condition (dry flesh mass/shell mass) was worse in individuals growing in eelgrass than in the sand flat. Previous experiments revealed that dense beds of Musculista impede the rhizome growth and vegetative propagation of eelgrass, yet mussels attain abundances sufficient for interference only if eelgrass beds are patchy. Thus, anthropogenic disturbances on eelgrass beds, which often result in meadow fragmentation, and the proliferation of Musculista may have synergistic negative effects on the persistence of eelgrass beds.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    Inter Research
    In:  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 211 . pp. 261-274.
    Publication Date: 2015-02-09
    Description: Marine angiosperms, or seagrasses, continue to be a major focus of marine biologists because of their important ecological role in many coastal ecosystems. Seagrass population biology could benefit from a population genetic perspective because genetic data enable the extraction of useful demographic information such as isolation and gene flow between demes. Moreover, population genetic processes may contribute to the growing ecological risks of local population extinction. Progress in seagrass genetics is partly driven by novel genetic markers which detect variation at the DNA level and overcome the limited polymorphism of allozymes. Key results of studies in the past decade, mostly using RAPD and microsatellites, were (1) considerable genetic and genotypic (clonal) diversity is present in several species in contrast to earlier notions of low polymorphism detected at allozyme loci, and (2) genetic differentiation among populations seems to be the rule despite earlier reports of genetic uniformity. Pronounced genetic structure was detected between populations of 4 species examined thus far (Posidonia oceanica, P. australis, Zostera marina, Thalassia testudinum). The FST estimates varied widely and ranged from 0.01 to 0.623 across studies and species. Genetic differentiation at a systematic range of scales was only studied in eelgrass Zostera marina, where it was positively correlated with geographic distance. The high polymorphism of RAPD or microsatellite markers will allow the augmention of indirect estimates of gene flow by methods detecting individual immigration events through paternity analysis or assignment tests. Important conservation related issues such as the level of inbreeding and the effective population size have also been obtained from genetic marker data, but results are too scarce at the moment to allow generalizations. In Zostera marina and Posidonia australis, several population genetic attributes such as clonal diversity, mating system and effective population size varied among populations within species, highlighting that there is no Œtypical¹ population. An important gap in our knowledge is whether the effects of natural population fragmentation and patchiness enhance the genetic isolation of populations due to anthropogenic disturbances. It is also unclear whether genetic differentiation displayed at marker loci are correlated with fitness-related plant traits, and whether genetic or genotypic diversity is important for medium- to long-term meadow persistence. An assessment of the genetic and genotypic diversity at marker loci should be combined with experiments on the ecological plasticity and reaction norms of genotypes composing the populations in question. This way, the role of genetic diversity for seagrass population maintenance and growth in the face of changing environmental conditions can be evaluated.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-08
    Description: The patterns of genomic divergence during ecological speciation are shaped by a combination of evolutionary forces. Processes such as genetic drift, local reduction of gene flow around genes causing reproductive isolation, hitchhiking around selected variants, variation in recombination and mutation rates are all factors that can contribute to the heterogeneity of genomic divergence. On the basis of 60 fully sequenced three-spined stickleback genomes, we explore these different mechanisms explaining the heterogeneity of genomic divergence across five parapatric lake and river population pairs varying in their degree of genetic differentiation. We find that divergent regions of the genome are mostly specific for each population pair, while their size and abundance are not correlated with the extent of genome-wide population differentiation. In each pair-wise comparison, an analysis of allele frequency spectra reveals that 25–55% of the divergent regions are consistent with a local restriction of gene flow. Another large proportion of divergent regions (38–75%) appears to be mainly shaped by hitchhiking effects around positively selected variants. We provide empirical evidence that alternative mechanisms determining the evolution of genomic patterns of divergence are not mutually exclusive, but rather act in concert to shape the genome during population differentiation, a first necessary step towards ecological speciation. Authors Summary A variety of evolutionary forces influence the genomic landscape of divergence during ecological speciation. Here we characterize the evolution of genomic divergence patterns based on 60 fully sequenced three-spined stickleback genomes, contrasting lake and river populations that differ in parasite abundance. Our comparison of the size and abundance of divergent regions in the genomes across a continuum of population differentiation suggests that selection and the hitchhiking effect on neutral sites mainly contributes to the observed heterogeneous patterns of genomic divergence. Additional divergent regions of the genome can be explained by a local reduction of gene flow. Our description of genomic divergence patterns across a continuum of population differentiation combined with an analysis of molecular signatures of evolution highlights how adaptation shapes the differentiation of sticklebacks in freshwater habitats.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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