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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Zidovudine ; Myopathy ; Nucleus ; Mitochondria ; AIDS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Long-term zidovudine (also termed azidothymidine, AZT) treatment of AIDS patients may cause severe myopathy characterized by conspicuous mitochondrial and nuclear changes. The mitochondrial changes are attributed to an inhibitory effect of AZT on the mitochondrial γ-polymerase in a variety of cells. Inhibition of the nuclear α-polymerase is another well-known side effect of AZT, whereas the (nuclear) β-polymerase appears to be rather insensitive. The nuclear changes seen in AIDS patients are usually considered secondary to the human immunodeficiency virus infection. To eliminate the influence of the virus on the nuclei, we studied the effect of AZT on non-infected, organotypic co-cultures of spinal ganglia, spinal cord, and skeletal muscle from fetal rats. We noted significant changes not only in the mitochondria but also in the nuclei of spinal ganglia, spinal cord, and muscle cells, which depended more on the duration of AZT application (1, 3, 5, and 8 days) than on the concentration (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μM). The alterations of the mitochondria consisted mainly of swelling, loss of cristae and, finally, disappearance. The nuclei showed nucleolar segregation, marginal condensation of heterochromatin, formation of interchromatin and perichromatin granules, nuclear protrusions and pseudoinclusions and, finally, disintegration. The changes were not as pleomorphic as those seen in biopsy specimens from AIDS patients who had received long-term treatment with AZT. However, this difference can easily be attributed to the short duration of drug application in tissue culture compared to the long-term medication in patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-086X
    Keywords: Key words: Grafts and prostheses—Arteries, iliac—Magnetic resonance angiography—Stent-grafts—Percutaneous angioplasty—Experimental study
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: To compare nonferromagnetic iliac artery prostheses in their suitability for patency monitoring with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using conventional angiography as a reference. Methods: In experiment 1, three Memotherm stents were inserted into the iliac arteries of each of six sheep: two “tandem” stents on one side and a single stent on the other side. In experiment 2, four prostheses (normal and low-porosity Corvita stent-grafts, Memotherm, ZA-stent) were inserted in each of 11 sheep. Patency was monitored before and 1, 3, and 6 months after insertion with 3D phase-contrast and two 2D time-of-flight sequences (TOF-1: TR/TE = 18/6.9, TOF-2: 13/2.5) with and without contrast at 1.5 T. On 206 coronal MIP images (72 pre-, 134 post-stenting), three readers analyzed 824 iliac segments (206 × 4) for patency and artifacts. Results: There was no difference in the number of artifacts between tandem and single iliac Memotherm stents. The ZA-stent induced significantly fewer artifacts than the other prostheses (p 〈 0.00001). With MRA, patency of the ZA-stent was correctly diagnosed in 88% of cases, which was almost comparable to nonstented iliac segments (95%), patency of the Memotherm stent in 59%, and of the Corvita stent-grafts in 57% and 55%. The TOF-2 sequence with contrast yielded the best images. Conclusion: MRA compatibility of nonferromagnetic prostheses depends strongly on the design of the device. MRA may be used to monitor the patency of iliac ZA-stents, whereas iliac Memotherm stents and Corvita stent-grafts appear to be less suited for follow-up with MRA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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