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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular medicine 48 (1970), S. 357-362 
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The 2 hour-conversion ratio (protein bound radioiodine/total radioiodine in the serum 2 hours p.c.) is a useful parameter in the diagnostic of thyroid function. By determination in the course of the radioiodine-test with131I (48 hours) in 236 patients the 2 hour-conversion ratio shows its high diagnostic value. By the 2 hour-conversion ratio we can differ between iodine deficiency and hyperthyroidism. Especially in patients with a reduced iodine-pool, i.e. after strumectomy, the 2 hour-conversion ratio is a more reliable parameter for thyroid function than the131I-radioiodine-test. — The 2 hour-conversion ratio can complete the131I-test. The real value however has this parameter as part of an early throird function study with132I.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Das 2 Std-Umwandlungsverhältnis (conversion ratio) ergänzt die Funktionsdiagnostik mit Radiojod in wesentlichen Punkten. Man versteht hierunter das Verhältnis zwischen dem proteingebundenen und dem gesamten Radiojod im Serum 2 Std nach Verabreichung der Testdosis. Bei einer Bestimmung des 2 Std-Umwandlungsverhältnisses im Rahmen des131J-Zweiphasentests an 236 Patienten zeigt sich dessen hohe diagnostische Aussagekraft. Vor allem bewährt es sich bei erhöhter Jodadvitität und bei gesteigertem Jodumsatz, also zur Abgrenzung der Hyperthyreose von der Jodmangelstruma. Bei Patienten mit verkleinertem Jodpool, z.B. bei Zustand nach Strumektomie, gibt das 2h-UV besser den tatsächlichen Funktionszustand wieder als der übliche131J-Zweiphasentest. Das 2 Std-Umwandlungsverhältnis kann damit diesen Test ergänzen. Seine eigentliche Bedeutung hat es jedoch als wesentlicher Bestandteil eines Zweiphasen-Kurztests mit132J.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Medical microbiology and immunology 145 (1958), S. 103-110 
    ISSN: 1432-1831
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Nach kurzer Darstellung der bisher in der Literatur erschienenen Berichte Über Salmonella-Doppelinfektionen — unter besonderem Hinweis auf das Schrifttum beiKauffmann undBatty-Shaw u. Mitarb. — werden die möglichen Entstehungs- und Verlaufsformen als echte Mischinfektion, Sekundär- oder Superinfektion diskutiert. In allen Fällen ist die Aufnahme eines jeden später nachgewiesenen Salmonellen-Typs unabdingbare Voraussetzung der Doppel- oder Mehrfachinfektionen, die nicht als hypothetische Variabilitätserscheinung eines ursprÜnglich serologisch einheitlichen Erregertyps zu erklären sind. Ein eindrucksvoller Fall von S. typhi murium — und S. blockley-Doppelinfektion bei gleichzeitiger streng nach Organsystemen getrennter Ausscheidung beider Erreger und nachfolgender Sicherung der bakteriologischen Ergebnisse durch Sektionsbefunde wird beschrieben.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Infection 2 (1974), S. 1-2 
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In-vitro-Untersuchungen (Reihenverdünnungstest, ICS-Methode, MH-Bouillon, 140 Bakterienstämme) zur antibakteriellen Aktivität von Cefazolin im Vergleich zu 5 weiteren Cephalosporin-Antibiotika hatten die folgenden Resultate: Gegen grampositive Kokken (Staph., Strept.) hat Cefazolin eine etwas geringere Aktivität als Cephaloridin, ist jedoch stärker wirksam als Cephalexin und nimmt unter den geprüften Derivaten der 7ACA eine mittlere Stellung ein. Alle grampositiven Keime (Enterokokken ausgenommen) liegen mit ihrer MIC noch im Bereich des 4-Stunden-Spiegels nach 500 mg Cefazolin i.m. Gegen gramnegative Bakterien ist Cefazolin etwas mehr aktiv als Cephaloridin, jedoch schwächer wirksam als Cephanon und Cephamandol. Pharmakokinetische Studien (10 Freiwillige) demonstrieren, daß nach i.m. Injektion von Cefazolin zwei- bis fünfmal höhere Blutspiegel resultieren als nach Cephaloridin in gleicher Dosis. Sie betragen nach 1–2–4–6–8 Stunden im Durchschnitt (500 mg) 31,5 – 25,4 – 12,5 – 6,8 – 3,0 mcg/ml und nach 1000 mg 63,3 – 49,4 – 24,5 – 12,6 – 6,6 mcg/ml mit einer Eliminationshalbwertzeit von 120 min. Die 24-h-Recovery im Urin liegt bei 80%. Diese Serumspiegel sind ausreichend zur Behandlung der meisten gramnegativen Infektionen mit Ausnahme von Pseudomonas-sowie Indol-positiven Proteus-Stämmen.
    Notes: Summary In vitro studies (tube dilution tests, ICS method, MH medium, 140 pathogenic strains) to determine the antibacterial activity of cefazolin compared to five other cephalosporin antibiotics gave the following results: Cefazolin is somewhat less active against grampositive cocci than cephaloridine but is more active than cephalexin and occupies a medium position among the 7ACA derivatives examined. The MIC of all gram-positive organisms (except enterococci) are below the mean blood levels at 4 hours after 500 mg. Cefazolin is somewhat more active than cephaloridine against gramnegative rods but less active than cephanone and cephamandole. Pharmacokinetic studies on ten volunteers demonstrated that after i.m. injection in equal dosages the blood levels of cefazolin are two to five times higher than those of cephaloridine. After 500 mg they averaged after 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours 31.5, 25.4, 12.5, 6.8 and 3.0 mcg/ml respectively and after 1,000 mg 63.3, 49.4, 24.5, 12.6 and 6.6 mc/ml, and had a half-life of 120 minutes. The 24hr recovery in the urine was 80%. These levels are adequate to treat most gram-negative infections except Pseudomonas and indole-positive Proteus.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Infection 2 (1974), S. 52-55 
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the Federal Republic of Germany there are only few laboratories which routinely perform the exactly quantifiable tube or agar dilution test. The majority still use the agar diffusion test (disc test) in its conventional form so that the results of various investigators are of only limited comparability. For this reason the “Fachnormen-Committee Medicine” established an expert commission which, in association with the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology, is preparing recommendations for standardization of technique and evaluation. The work of this commission is not yet complete, but first preliminary recommendations have resulted. These are largely correlated to the suggestions by ICS and thus also correspond to the methods recommended in the USA by FDA. For the dilution test in liquid and solid media the German guidelines for technique and use of Mueller-Hinton medium are identical to the ICS procedure. Equally, the agar diffusion (disc) test corresponding to the ICS procedure is recommended as reference method with MH medium in Germany. However, the German group of experts is of the opinion that standardization of the technique alone is not sufficient. The definition of the terms “sensitive” and “resistant” is at least equally important as well as recommendations on an uniform interpretation of the MIC values for therapy. For this reason special activities of a subcommittee are devoted to differentiating the various categories of sensitivity and their breakpoints. They are oriented to the mean antibiotic serum level in the middle of the application interval (timeτ/2) minus the standard variation (s) as an additional safety factor. This “meanτ/2 blood level” may be considered as an approximate value for extravasal tissue levels. High initial levels only acting as “antibiotic transport in circulating blood” and not representative for the antibiotic concentrations at the site of infection are not considered, like the lower blood levels during the second half of the application interval. Other than the ICS procedure only three categories (sensitive, moderately sensitive and resistant) are considered sufficient in Germany. The term sensitive is given to pathogens with a MIC equal (or lower) to the meanτ/2 blood level under usual normal doses. The breakpoint between moderately sensitive and resistant is defined by the meanτ/2 level under high doses. A list with the previously discussed breakpoints of the major antibiotics is demonstrated.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Infection 7 (1979), S. S263 
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: ABSTRACT We have undertaken petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic investigations on carbonate minerals found within a 10-m-long core from Lonar Lake, central India, with the aim of evaluating their potential as palaeoenvironmental proxies. The core encompasses the entire Holocene and is the first well-dated high-resolution record from central India. While calcite and/or aragonite were found throughout the core, the mineral gaylussite was found only in two specific intervals (4630–3890 and 2040–560 cal a BP). Hydrochemical and isotope data from inflowing streams and lake waters indicate that evaporitic processes play a dominant role in the precipitation of carbonates within this lake. Isotopic (δ 18 O and δ 13 C) studies on the evaporative gaylussite crystals and residual bulk carbonates (calcite) from the long core show that evaporation is the major control on δ 18 O enrichment in both the minerals. However, in case of δ 13 C additional mechanisms, for example methanogenesis (gaylussite) and phytoplankton productivity (calcium carbonate), play an additional important role in some intervals. We also discuss the relevance of our investigation for palaeoclimate reconstruction and late Holocene monsoon variability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Print ISSN: 0267-8179
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1417
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-15
    Description: Molecular architecture of the DED chains at the DISC: regulation of procaspase-8 activation by short DED proteins c-FLIP and procaspase-8 prodomain Cell Death and Differentiation 23, 681 (April 2016). doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.137 Authors: K Schleich, J H Buchbinder, S Pietkiewicz, T Kähne, U Warnken, S Öztürk, M Schnölzer, M Naumann, P H Krammer & I N Lavrik
    Print ISSN: 1350-9047
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-5403
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-06-03
    Description: In prokaryotes and archaea transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) stability as well as cellular UV protection relies on the post-transcriptional modification of uracil at position 8 (U8) of tRNAs by the 4-thiouridine synthetase ThiI. Here, we report three crystal structures of ThiI from Thermotoga maritima in complex with a truncated tRNA. The RNA is mainly bound by the N-terminal ferredoxin-like domain (NFLD) and the THUMP domain of one subunit within the ThiI homo-dimer thereby positioning the U8 close to the catalytic center in the pyrophosphatase domain of the other subunit. The recognition of the 3’-CCA end by the THUMP domain yields a molecular ruler defining the specificity for U8 thiolation. This first structure of a THUMP/NFLD-RNA complex might serve as paradigm for the RNA recognition by THUMP domains of other proteins. The ternary ThiI–RNA–ATP complex shows no significant structural changes due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding, but two different states of active site loops are observed independent of the nucleotide loading state. Thereby conformational changes of the active site are coupled with conformational changes of the bound RNA. The ThiI–RNA complex structures indicate that full-length tRNA has to adopt a non-canonical conformation upon binding to ThiI.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-10-19
    Description: Predicting early psychiatric readmission with natural language processing of narrative discharge summaries Translational Psychiatry 6, e921 (October 2016). doi:10.1038/tp.2015.182 Authors: A Rumshisky, M Ghassemi, T Naumann, P Szolovits, V M Castro, T H McCoy & R H Perlis
    Electronic ISSN: 2158-3188
    Topics: Medicine
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