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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Tokyo :Springer Japan,
    Keywords: Biochemistry. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (552 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 9784431342007
    DDC: 571.6
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-10-26
    Description: Very long chain (C22-C24) ceramides are synthesized by ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2). A CerS2 null mouse displays hepatopathy because of depletion of C22-C24 ceramides, elevation of C16-ceramide, and/or elevation of sphinganine. Unexpectedly, CerS2 null mice were resistant to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Although there were a number of biochemical changes in the liver, such as increased levels of glutathione and multiple drug-resistant protein 4, these effects are unlikely to account for the lack of acetaminophen toxicity. A number of other hepatotoxic agents, such as d-galactosamine, CCl4, and thioacetamide, were also ineffective in inducing liver damage. All of these drugs and chemicals require connexin (Cx) 32, a key gap junction protein, to induce hepatotoxicity. Cx32 was mislocalized to an intracellular location in hepatocytes from CerS2 null mice, which resulted in accelerated rates of its lysosomal degradation. This mislocalization resulted from the altered membrane properties of the CerS2 null mice, which was exemplified by the disruption of detergent-resistant membranes. The lack of acetaminophen toxicity and Cx32 mislocalization were reversed upon infection with recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing CerS2. We establish that Gap junction function is compromised upon altering the sphingolipid acyl chain length composition, which is of relevance for understanding the regulation of drug-induced liver injury.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-02-16
    Description: Ceramide is a key intermediate in the pathway of sphingolipid biosynthesis and is an important intracellular messenger. We recently generated a ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) null mouse that cannot synthesize very long acyl chain (C22-C24) ceramides. This mouse displays severe and progressive hepatopathy. Significant changes were observed in the sphingolipid profile of CerS2 null mouse liver, including elevated C16-ceramide and sphinganine levels in liver and in isolated mitochondrial fractions. Because ceramide may be involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, we examined whether ROS generation was affected in CerS2 null mice. Levels of a number of anti-oxidant enzymes were elevated, as were lipid peroxidation, protein nitrosylation, and ROS. ROS were generated from mitochondria due to impaired complex IV activity. C16-ceramide, sphingosine, and sphinganine directly inhibited complex IV activity in isolated mitochondria and in mitoplasts, whereas other ceramide species, sphingomyelin, and diacylglycerol were without effect. A fluorescent analog of sphinganine accumulated in mitochondria. Heart mitochondria did not display a substantial alteration in the sphingolipid profile or in complex IV activity. We suggest that C16-ceramide and/or sphinganine induce ROS formation through the modulation of mitochondrial complex IV activity, resulting in chronic oxidative stress. These results are of relevance for understanding modulation of ROS signaling by sphingolipids.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-14
    Description: 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) is an enzymatically derived oxidation product of cholesterol that modulates lipid metabolism and immunity. 25OHC is synthesized in response to interferons and exerts broad antiviral activity by as yet poorly characterized mechanisms. To gain further insights into the basis for antiviral activity, we evaluated time-dependent responses of the macrophage lipidome and transcriptome to 25OHC treatment. In addition to altering specific aspects of cholesterol and sphingolipid metabolism, we found that 25OHC activates integrated stress response (ISR) genes and reprograms protein translation. Effects of 25OHC on ISR gene expression were independent of liver X receptors and sterol-response element-binding proteins and instead primarily resulted from activation of the GCN2/eIF2α/ATF4 branch of the ISR pathway. These studies reveal that 25OHC activates the integrated stress response, which may contribute to its antiviral activity.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-06-22
    Description: Ceramide, the backbone of all sphingolipids, is synthesized by a family of ceramide synthases (CerS) that each use acyl-CoAs of defined chain length for N-acylation of the sphingoid long chain base. CerS mRNA expression and enzymatic activity do not always correlate with the sphingolipid acyl chain composition of a particular tissue, suggesting post-translational mechanism(s) of regulation of CerS activity. We now demonstrate that CerS activity can be modulated by dimer formation. Under suitable conditions, high Mr CerS complexes can be detected by Western blotting, and various CerS co-immunoprecipitate. CerS5 activity is inhibited in a dominant-negative fashion by co-expression with catalytically inactive CerS5, and CerS2 activity is enhanced by co-expression with a catalytically active form of CerS5 or CerS6. In a constitutive heterodimer comprising CerS5 and CerS2, the activity of CerS2 depends on the catalytic activity of CerS5. Finally, CerS dimers are formed upon rapid stimulation of ceramide synthesis by curcumin. Together, these data demonstrate that ceramide synthesis can be regulated by the formation of CerS dimers and suggest a novel way to generate the acyl chain composition of ceramide (and downstream sphingolipids), which may depend on the interaction of CerS with each other.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-10-13
    Description: Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) signaling increases glucocorticoid production by promoting the interaction of transcription factors and coactivator proteins with the promoter of steroidogenic genes. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is essential for steroidogenic gene transcription. Sphingosine (SPH) is a ligand for SF-1. Moreover, suppression of expression of acid ceramidase (ASAH1), an enzyme that produces SPH, increases the transcription of multiple steroidogenic genes. Given that SF-1 is a nuclear protein, we sought to define the molecular mechanisms by which ASAH1 regulates SF-1 function. We show that ASAH1 is localized in the nuclei of H295R adrenocortical cells and that cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling promotes nuclear sphingolipid metabolism in an ASAH1-dependent manner. ASAH1 suppresses SF-1 activity by directly interacting with the receptor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that ASAH1 is recruited to the promoter of various SF-1 target genes and that ASAH1 and SF-1 colocalize on the same promoter region of the CYP17A1 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) genes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASAH1 is a novel coregulatory protein that represses SF-1 function by directly binding to the receptor on SF-1 target gene promoters and identify a key role for nuclear lipid metabolism in regulating gene transcription.
    Print ISSN: 0270-7306
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5549
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-01-24
    Description: Gaucher disease has recently received wide attention due to the unexpected discovery that it is a genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Gaucher disease is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal enzyme, glucocerebrosidase (GCase; GBA1), resulting in intracellular accumulation of the glycosphingolipids, glucosylceramide and psychosine. The rare neuronopathic forms of GD (nGD) are characterized by profound neurological impairment and neuronal cell death. We have previously described the progression of neuropathological changes in a mouse model of nGD. We now examine the relationship between glycosphingolipid accumulation and initiation of pathology at two pre-symptomatic stages of the disease in four different brain areas which display differential degrees of susceptibility to GCase deficiency. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated glucosylceramide and psychosine accumulation in nGD brains prior to the appearance of neuroinflammation, although only glucosylceramide accumulation correlated with neuroinflammation and neuron loss. Levels of other sphingolipids, including the pro-apoptotic lipid, ceramide, were mostly unaltered. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that glucosylceramide accumulation occurs in neurons, mostly in the form of membrane-delimited pseudo-tubules located near the nucleus. Highly disrupted glucosylceramide-storing cells, which are likely degenerating neurons containing massive inclusions, numerous autophagosomes and unique ultrastructural features, were also observed. Together, our results indicate that a certain level of neuronal glucosylceramide storage is required to trigger neuropathological changes in affected brain areas, while other brain areas containing similar glucosylceramide levels are unaltered, presumably because of intrinsic differences in neuronal properties, or in the neuronal environment, between various brain regions.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
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    The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: Sphingosine was named by J. L. W. Thudichum for its enigmatic properties. This descriptor has applied to sphingolipids for over a century because new enigmas continue to surface. This JBC minireview series presents articles about three novel subspecies of sphingolipids, α-galactosylceramides, 4,5-dihydroceramides, and 1-deoxysphingolipids, that have important activities but, until recently, remained undetected (or at least understudied) in the shadow of very closely related compounds. They also serve as a reminder that important metabolites still lie “off the radar screen” in reports of global and comprehensive metabolomic profiling.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
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    The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: The traditional backbones of mammalian sphingolipids are 2-amino, 1,3-diols made by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Many organisms additionally produce non-traditional, cytotoxic 1-deoxysphingoid bases and, surprisingly, mammalian SPT biosynthesizes some of them, too (e.g. 1-deoxysphinganine from l-alanine). These are rapidly N-acylated to 1-deoxy-“ceramides” with very uncommon biophysical properties. The functions of 1-deoxysphingolipids are not known, but they are certainly dangerous as contributors to sensory and autonomic neuropathies when elevated by inherited SPT mutations, and they are noticeable in diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, serine deficiencies, and other diseases. As components of food as well as endogenously produced, these substances are mysteries within an enigma.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Nutrition 13 (1993), S. 539-559 
    ISSN: 0199-9885
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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