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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-10-17
    Description: Although groundwater is a major water resource in the western US, little research has been done on the impacts of climate change on groundwater storage and recharge in the West. Here we assess the impact of projected changes in climate on groundwater recharge in the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future across the western US. VIC model was run with RCP 6.0 forcing from 11 GCMs and ‘subsurface runoff’ output was considered as recharge. Recharge is expected to decrease in the West (-5.8±14.8 %) and Southwest (-4.0±6.7%) regions in the near future and in the South region (-9.5±24.3%) in the far future. The Northern Rockies region is expected to get more recharge in the near (+5.3±6.3%) and far (+11.8±8.3%) future. Overall, southern portions of the western US are expected to get less recharge in the future and northern portions will get more. Climate change interacts with land surface properties to affect the amount of recharge that occurs in the future. Effects on recharge due to change in vegetation response from projected changes in climate and CO 2 concentration, though important, are not considered in this study.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The ability to predict isoprene emissions from plants is important for predicting atmospheric chemistry. To improve the basis for prediction capability, data obtained from continuous field measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emissions from three Amazonian tree species were related to observed environmental and leaf physiological parameters using a new neural network approach. The environmental parameters included leaf temperature, light, relative humidity, water vapour pressure deficit, and the history of ambient temperature and ozone concentration, whereas the physiological parameters included stomatal conductance, assimilation and intercellular CO2 concentration. The neural approach with 24 different combinations of these parameters was applied to predict the emission variability observed during short time periods (2–3 d) with individual tree branches and, on a longer-term scale, in aggregated data sets from different seasons, leaf developmental stage, and light environment. The results were compared to the quasi standard emission algorithm for isoprene. On the short-term scale, good agreement (r2≈ 0.9) was obtained between observations and predictions of the standard algorithm as well as predictions of the neural network using the same input parameters (leaf temperature and light). When these predictors were used to model the long-term emission variability, r2 was reduced to 〈 0.5 for both approaches. Remarkably, for the neural technique, more than 50% of the unexplained variance could be explained by the mean temperature of the preceding 36 h. An even better network performance was obtained with physiological parameter combinations (r2 〉 0.9) suggesting a strong and applicable link between isoprenoid emission and leaf primary metabolism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0867
    Keywords: Africa ; biogenic emission ; dry season ; dynamic chamber ; forest ; grassland ; groundnut ; maize ; Miombo typesavanna ecosystem ; nitric oxide ; pulsing ; sorghum ; wet season ; Zimbabwe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract During October to December 1994, we measured diel and seasonal variability in nitric oxide (NO) exchange by a southern African savanna ecosystem (Grasslands Research Station, Marondera, Zimbabwe). A set of automated dynamic chambers was installed in three sub-sites: Miombo forest, natural grassland, and cropped soils (maize, sorghum, groundnut). The latter received a single application of commercialy available in-organic or cowdung fertilizer. The dynamic chamber system is described in detail, including correction of the resulting data for wall losses and gas-phase reactions of the NO-NO2-O3 triad. During the dry season, net vertical NO fluxes were close to the detection limit (0.44 ngN m-2s-1) regardless of vegetation type. During the transition from dry to wet season strong "pulsing" effects of the NO flux were observed: NO emissions increased by a factor of up to 60 within hours. During the wet season, NO emissions varied between the different sub-sites of the ecosystem; corresponding means are in ranking order of fertilized agricultural plots (27.2 ngN m-2 s-1), unfertilized agricultural plots (8.5 ngN m-2 s-1 ), grassland (4.4 ngN m-2 s-1 ), and Miombo forest (1.5 ngN m-2 s-1). Soil moisture was found to be the dominant factor controlling the NO fluxes. Whenever it was not limiting, the diel behaviour of NO emission followed the daily variation of soil temperature measured 1 cm below the surface.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 2 (1984), S. 175-189 
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Sulfur dioxide ; stratospheric sulfur budget ; stratospheric-tropospheric exchange
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract In 1978–1980 nine aircraft flights to an altitude of up to 15 km were made over western Europe. Sulfur dioxide was measured with a sensitive chemiluminescence method consisting of separate sampling and analysis stages and application of a wet chemical filter procedure (detection limit: 8 pptv SO2). The measurements performed in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere lead to some unexpected results: (a) the meteorological conditions at the tropopause level have an important influence on the observed SO2 mixing ratio; (b) between the 500 mb and the actual tropopause level the SO2 mixing ratio is found to be 〈100 pptv, and weak vertical gradients of SO2 suggest only a small flux of tropospheric SO2 into the stratosphere; (c) increasing SO2 mixing ratios within the first kilometers of the stratosphere give strong support to a stratospheric source of SO2. In the light of improved one-dimensional models considering the vertical distribution of stratospheric sulfur compounds (Crutzen, 1981; Turco et al. 1981) it can be shown that the oxidation of organic sulfur compounds (e.g., OCS, CS2) seems to be a stratospheric source of SO2. Furthermore, the flux calculations based on the SO2 mixing ratios measured at the tropopause level indicate that the contribution of tropospheric (man-made) SO2 to the stratospheric aerosol layer is of only minor importance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Nonmethane hydrocarbons ; trace gases ; remote troposphere ; vertical and latitudinal variation ; vertical transport ; aircraft observation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Meridional cross sections of the concentration of light hydrocarbons are reported. They were obtained from 20. April to 10. May, 1980, during the French research flight STRATOZ II, and cover the latitudes between 60° N and 60° S and the altitudes between 800 mb and 200 mb. The mixing ratios of ethane, ethene, acetylene, propane, propene, n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, and i-pentane range between 2.0 and 0.02 ppb. Globally, a decrease in concentration with increasing altitude and -in most cases-with decreasing latitude is observed. In addition the 2-dimensional concentration fields show structures of different scales. In particular, isolated maxima of high concentrations are found in the upper troposphere. They point to fast vertical transport between the boundary layer and the upper troposphere. In the present case these maxima seem to be correlated with large scale meteorological systems, such as low pressure regions or the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. It is argued that the NMHC provide a set of tracers well suited to the detection of fast vertical transport.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 2 (1984), S. 47-63 
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Gaseous hydrogen chloride ; tropospheric measurements ; vertical profiles ; marine and remote continental areas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Vertical profiles of gaseous hydrogen chloride have been measured in the lower and middle troposphere. For sampling, denuder tubes coated with porous silica were used. Hydrogen chloride was determined by gas chromatography in combination with a derivatization method. The samples were collected over the Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway in early September 1981 and over the Mediterranean Sea and north-eastern Spain in December 1981 at altitudes between 0.1 and 7 km. Above the 3 km altitude the mixing ratios are generally very low and relatively uniform with values of 50–100 ppt. Below 3 km, the variations of the HCl-mixing ratios are larger with maximum values of up to 500 ppt. The profiles are discussed with respect to the vertical and horizontal transport conditions and the possible sources and sinks of gaseous hydrogen chloride.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of radioanalytical and nuclear chemistry 216 (1997), S. 143-148 
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract As part of the SAFARI-92 biomass buming experiment, aerosol collections were carried out with several size-fractionating sampling devices at a number of sites in Southern Africa. One of the samplers used at all ground-based sites was a stacked filter unit (SFU). The SFU samples were analyzed by both INAA and PIXE analysis. The present paper gives an intercomparison of the analytical results obtained in order to assess the accuracy and to check the quality assurance of the analytical procedures. Twenty-one common elements were determined by both INAA and PIXE. Concentrations of 13 elements (i.e., Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br) were generally measured with sufficient precision in both techniques for performing the intercomparison. The INAA and PIXE data were compared in terms of PIXE/INAA concentration ratios on a sample by sample basis for the coarse and fine size fraction separately. the atmospheric concentrations for K, Mn and Fe agreed within 5–10%, the agreement between the data for the other common elements was typically better than 15%. Possible explanations for lower than 1.0 ratios for Cl, Br and Na are presented. The common elements were classified into groups according to their detectability and sensitivity in each technique.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Fresenius' Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie 317 (1984), S. 343-344 
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: To investigate the energy, matter and reactive and non-reactive trace gas exchange between the atmosphere and a spruce forest in the German mountain region, two intensive measuring periods were conducted at the FLUXNET site DE-Bay (Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen) in September/October 2007 and June/July 2008. They were part of the project "ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions" (EGER). Beyond a brief description of the experiment, the main focus of the paper concerns the coupling between the trunk space, the canopy and the above-canopy atmosphere. Therefore, relevant coherent structures were analyzed for different in- and above canopy layers, coupling between layers was classified according to already published procedures, and gradients and fluxes of meteorological quantities as well as concentrations of non-reactive and reactive trace compounds have been sorted along the coupling classes. Only in the case of a fully coupled system, it could be shown, that fluxes measured above the canopy are related to gradients between the canopy and the above-canopy atmosphere. Temporal changes of concentration differences between top of canopy and the forest floor, particularly those of reactive trace gases (NO, NO2, O3, and HONO) could only be interpreted on the basis of the coupling stage. Consequently, only concurrent and vertically resolved measurements of micrometeorological (turbulence) quantities and fluxes (gradients) of trace compounds will lead to a better understanding of the forest-atmosphere interaction.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Keywords: 550 - Earth sciences
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
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